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our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
A specialty area that focuses on the connections between brain activity and mental processes is known as
The simultaneous processing of information at both conscious and unconscious levels is called
A condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it is known as
A capacity to monitor simultaneously the color, shape, and motion of an object best illustrates
Focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus is called
Our inability to consciously process all the sensory information available to us at any single point in time best illustrates the necessity of
While reading a novel, Raoul isn't easily distracted by the sounds of the TV or even by his brothers' loud arguments. This best illustrates
The cocktail party effect provides an example of
Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere is called
If asked to watch a video and press a key each time a black-shirted player passed a basketball, most research participants remained unaware of an umbrella-toting woman strolling across the video screen. This illustrated
Although unable to report the width of a block in front of her, a woman identified as D. F. could grasp the block with just the right finger-thumb distance. Her experience best illustrates
A visual perception track enables most people to recognize objects at nearly the same time that a visual action track enables them to avoid bumping into the objects. This best illustrates
Shown the hollow face illusion, people will mistakenly perceive the inside of a mask as a protruding face. Yet, they will accurately reach into the inverted mask to flick off a buglike target stuck on the face. This best illustrates the capacity for
Compared with unconscious information processing, conscious information processing is relatively
slow and especially effective for solving new problems.
A bank teller was so distracted by the sight of a bank robber's weapon that she failed to perceive important features of the criminal's physical appearance. This best illustrates
When their attention is focused on a task such as reading, people are less likely to ________ than when their mind is wandering.
blink their eyes
Drivers are slower to detect traffic signals if they are talking on a cell phone. This best illustrates the impact of
The pop-out phenomenon illustrates that some stimuli almost inevitably trigger
Prior to the twentieth century, psychology was considered to be the study of
A large amount of our mental activity occurs outside our awareness thanks to our capacity for
The ability to consciously recognize and name the color of an object while we simultaneously and unconsciously monitor the object's shape and movement illustrates
A person is able to accurately point to the current location of certain moving objects that she is unable to consciously see. This best illustrates
Damage to the brain's visual perception track without any damage to the brain's visual action track is associated with a condition known as
You typically fail to consciously perceive that your own nose is in your line of vision. This best illustrates
The ability to pay attention to only one voice at a time is called
the cocktail party effect.
Standing in the checkout line at the grocery store, Jerry kept looking at his watch to see the time. As a result, he failed to see that a store employee was being robbed by a person just in front of him. Jerry most clearly suffered
When Jason briefly turned to summon the waiter, his wife quickly switched her glass of red wine with his glass of white wine. Jason's failure to notice that his chosen wine had been replaced best illustrates
When working an occasional night shift, people often feel groggiest in the middle of the night but experience new energy around the time they normally would wake up. This best illustrates the impact of
the circadian rhythm.
Circadian rhythm refers to
a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour cycle.
With the approach of night, our body temperatures begin to drop. This best illustrates the dynamics of the
Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with
A periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness that involves distinct stages is known as
Sensory experiences that occur without an external sensory stimulus are called
The rhythmic bursts of brain activity that occur during NREM-2 sleep are called
Genital arousal is most likely to be associated with
Three hours after going to sleep, Shoshanna's heart rate increases, her breathing becomes more rapid, and her eyes move rapidly under her closed lids. Research suggests that Shoshanna is
After flying from California to New York, Arthur experienced a restless, sleepless night. His problem was most likely caused by a disruption of his normal
Susan is a political cartoonist whose work requires her to think imaginatively and present ideas in visually novel ways. Her work is most likely to be facilitated by
full nights of sleep.
The best time for athletes to engage in heavy exercise workouts is
late afternoon or early evening.
When 909 working women reported on their daily moods, researchers noted that less time pressure at work mattered ________ and a good night's sleep mattered ________.
a lot; a lot
A recurring difficulty in falling or staying asleep is called
A need to take larger and larger doses of sleeping pills to avoid insomnia indicates
Narcolepsy is a disorder in which a person
experiences uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness.
In which of the following disorders does the person repeatedly stop breathing while asleep?
Compared with adults, children are
more likely to experience night terrors and more likely to experience sleepwalking
According to Freud, the dreams of adults can be traced back to
Freud called the remembered story line of a dream its ________ content.
Evidence suggests that we consolidate our memories of recent life events through
REM rebound involves the
tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation.
After completing a full night of sleep, people are most likely to
think more creatively.
Which of the following typically occur(s) during REM sleep?
Pushing back school start times has been found to ________ adolescent mood states and ________ adolescent alertness.
According to Freud, the personally threatening and censored meaning of a dream is its
Sleep spindles are characteristic of ________ sleep.
The pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour cycle is called the
When allowed to sleep 9 hours a night on a regular basis, college students are most likely to
study more effectively.
Deep sleep appears to play an important role in
Sleep apnea is a disorder involving
temporary cessations of breathing during sleep.
After suffering a trauma, people commonly report an increase in
Insomnia is a disorder involving
recurring difficulty in falling or staying asleep.
In the United States and Canada, people today sleep ________ than people did a century ago.
Alpha waves are associated with
a relaxed but awake state.
Slow-wave sleep promotes
As a participant in a sleep-research study for the past three nights, Tim has been repeatedly disturbed during REM sleep. Tonight, when allowed to sleep undisturbed, Tim will likely experience
an increase in REM sleep.
When people are experiencing vivid dreams
their eyes are likely to move under their closed eyelids.
Kevin needs to remember what he learned in today's classes. His memory of the material is most likely to be facilitated by
Margie insists that she never dreams, but her roommate feels she can prove otherwise. To prove that Margie does dream, the roommate should
wake Margie after 5 minutes of REM sleep and ask her what she's dreaming.
Evidence that dreams reflect the brain maturation and style of thinking associated with a dreamer's age and life experience would best support the ________ theory of dream content.
Research on susceptibility to hypnosis indicates that
people who are highly responsive to hypnotic suggestion tend to become absorbed in imaginative activities.
In one study, both hypnotized and unhypnotized subjects were told to throw acid in a researcher's face. In this experiment, hypnotized people
behaved in the same fashion as unhypnotized individuals.
Just prior to awakening Chinua from a hypnotic state, the therapist told him that during the next few days he would feel nauseous whenever he reached for a cigarette. Chinua's therapist was attempting to make use of
Which theory suggests that hypnosis involves inducing someone to enact the role of a hypnotic subject?
social influence theory
Orne and Evans discovered that unhypnotized subjects performed the same dangerous acts as hypnotized subjects. This finding is most consistent with the theory that hypnosis involves
conscious role playing.
Suppose that hypnotized adults who are encouraged to behave like children are no more genuinely childlike than unhypnotized adults who are encouraged to act in a childlike behavior. This fact most clearly supports the theory that hypnosis involves
A split in consciousness in which some thoughts occur simultaneously with and yet separately from other thoughts is called
The claim that hypnotic phenomena occur outside our normal awareness is associated with the theory that hypnosis involves
If highly hypnotizable people are no better than others at simultaneously reading a book and listening to music, this would most clearly challenge
One plausible theory suggests that hypnotic pain relief may result from
Understanding hypnosis in terms of focused attention, distinctive brain activity, and the presence of an authoritative presence in a legitimate context, requires an integrated ________ approach.
People who carry out a suggestion not to smell or react to a bottle of ammonia held under their nose are likely to be highly responsive to
Twenty-two-year-old Felicia scores high in hypnotic responsiveness as measured by the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. Research suggests that Felicia may also have
a creative imagination.
Research showed that research participants ordered to plunge their hands into what they think is acid, and then throw the “acid” in a research assistant's face, will
plunge their hands into the “acid” and throw it in the assistant's face, whether hypnotized or not.
While Bev was hypnotized, her therapist suggested that during the next several days she would have a strong desire to eat well-balanced meals. The therapist was apparently making use of
Research has indicated that hypnosis
enables some people to undergo surgery without anesthesia.
Advocates of the social influence theory of hypnosis are likely to argue that
hypnotized people are simply enacting the role of “good hypnotic subjects.”
Hypnotized people are no more likely to perform dangerous acts than those who are asked to simulate hypnosis. This fact is most consistent with
social influence theory.
People become unresponsive to hypnosis if told that those who are highly gullible are easily hypnotized. This fact is most consistent with the theory that hypnosis
involves conscious role playing.
Dissociation refers to
a state of divided consciousness.
People hypnotized for pain relief may show activity in brain areas that receive pain sensations but not in brain areas that make us consciously aware of the pain. This most directly supports the theory that hypnosis involves
When subjected to a painful medical procedure without the benefit of an anesthetic, a hypnotized person is most likely to
show physiological activation of the sensory cortex.
Evidence that people in a posthypnotic state have no difficulty consciously recalling everything they had experienced while under hypnosis would most clearly serve to challenge
Instead of viewing hypnosis as simply role playing or as simply a matter of dissociation, researchers are using a ________ approach to explore hypnosis from complementary perspectives.
When Celeste was unable to obtain her regular supply of heroin, she began to develop pain and an intense craving for the drug. Celeste was experiencing symptoms of
Arlette often consumes up to six cocktails in a row before she experiences any noticeable symptoms of intoxication. This suggests that Arlette has developed
Prolonged and excessive drinking can shrink the brain most intensely in ________ who have ________ of a stomach enzyme that digests alcohol.
Unlike alcohol, the THC in marijuana
lingers in the body for a week or more.
Repeated use of an opiate
decreases the brain's production of endorphins.
Which synthetic opiate is sometimes prescribed as a substitute for heroin?
Experimental participants who consumed alcohol rather than a placebo beverage were less likely to notice that their minds were wandering during a reading task. This best illustrates that alcohol reduces
Sixteen-year-old Bethany is becoming increasingly concerned about her use of marijuana on weekends. To reduce her use of this drug Bethany should
stop associating with friends who use marijuana.
If heavy drinking follows a period of moderate drinking, people may poison themselves with an overdose because the moderate drinking
depresses their vomiting response.
Young teens are most likely to start smoking in order to
gain social acceptance.
Chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods are called ________ drugs.
François was dismayed to discover that some of his football teammates were using drugs to enhance their footwork and endurance on the playing field. Which of the following drugs were the players most likely using?
The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is an indication of
Compulsive craving for and use of a drug is an indication of
When cocaine is snorted, injected, or smoked, it produces a rush of euphoria by
blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters.
Symptoms of drug withdrawal are likely to be
most severe among those with high levels of drug tolerance.
By triggering the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine, ________ boosts alertness and diminishes appetite.
Psychoactive drugs influence neurotransmission by stimulating, mimicking, or ________ the activity of neurotransmitters.
Near-death experiences are
often accompanied by visions of bright lights.
Smokers with ________ levels of nicotine tolerance are likely to suffer the most severe withdrawal symptoms when they discontinue smoking.
Which of the following is a common symptom of nicotine withdrawal?
U.S. sixth graders ________ their friends' use of marijuana, and university students ________ their fellow students' enthusiasm for alcohol.
Research on the use of addictive drugs indicates that
many people are able to stop using addictive drugs without professional help.
The reckless aggressive behavior that may follow alcohol consumption best illustrates that alcohol may act as a(n)
Which of the following is a psychedelic drug?
Under the influence of alcohol, angered people are ________ likely to be aggressive than they would otherwise be and restaurant patrons are ________ likely to tip generously than they otherwise would.
Women who have been drinking alcohol become ________ disposed to casual sex, and men who have been drinking become ________ disposed to casual sex.
When deprived of nicotine, smokers experience heightened levels of
One biological basis for addiction involves brain activity in the ________ reward system.
With repeated use of most psychoactive drugs, the immediate pleasant effects become ________ and the unpleasant aftereffects become ________.
less strongly pleasant; more strongly unpleasant
The use of barbiturates ________ anxiety and ________ nervous system activity.
The discomfort and distress that follow the discontinued use of certain drugs is called
A rewarding consequence of cigarette smoking is that it reduces
sensitivity to pain.
Which of the following is an amphetamine derivative that acts as a mild hallucinogen?
The greatest danger of viewing drug addiction as a disease is that this may lead drug addicts to
feel powerless to overcome the addiction.
A brief 15- to 30-minute rush of euphoria followed by a crash of agitated depression is most closely associated with the use of
Adopted individuals are more susceptible to alcohol dependence if one or both biological parents have a history of it. This indicates that alcohol dependence
is genetically influenced.
Caged rats respond to foot shocks with unusually high levels of aggression after ingesting
After drinking three cans of beer, Akiva felt less guilty about the way he mistreated his wife and children. Akiva's reduced guilt most likely resulted from the fact that his alcohol consumption has
reduced his self-awareness.
Compared with ordinary cocaine, crack produces a ________ intense high followed by a ________ intense crash.
Regular users of ________ may achieve a high with smaller amounts of the drug than occasional users.
Drug tolerance refers to the
reduced effect of a drug resulting from its regular usage.
Mark's abuse of alcohol and other addictive drugs is influenced by genetic factors, by the ready availability of drugs in Mark's neighborhood, and by Mark's failure to accurately assess the risks associated with drug usage. An understanding of Mark's difficulties within the framework of multiple levels of analysis is most clearly provided by
a biopsychosocial approach.
Methamphetamine enhances energy and mood by triggering the release of the neurotransmitter
Nicotine calms anxiety and diminishes sensitivity to pain by triggering the release of
While a man provided directions to a construction worker, two experimenters rudely interrupted by passing between them carrying a door. The man's failure to notice that the construction worker was replaced by a different person during this interruption illustrates
Memory aids that involve the use of vivid imagery and clever ways of organizing material are called
Mentally segmenting other's spoken sounds into individual words best illustrates a 7-month-old's capacity for
Many people who are bilingual experience a different sense of self, depending on which language they are using. This most clearly illustrates the implications of
The original IQ formula would be LEAST appropriate for representing the intelligence
test performance of:
The final exam in a calculus course would be an example of a(n) ________ test.
The Flynn effect is LEAST likely to be explained in terms of
changes in human genetic characteristics.
A college administrator is trying to assess whether an admissions test accurately predicts
how well applicants will perform at her school. The administrator is most obviously concerned
that the test is
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