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University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
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Biological Psychology: An Introduction to Behavioral, Cognitive, and Clinical Neuroscience, Fifth Edition
What was the break through that psychosis was a biological order?
syphillis bacteria caused syphillitic psychosis and antiobiotic eliminated this
What are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
delusions and ahllucinations and excited motor behavior
What are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
emotional ithdrawal and impoverished thought
how many people have schizophrenia?
2.2 millions americans
Delusions of a schizophrenic are highly...
personalized. Often think people are coming to get them.
What is the most common type of schizophrenic hallucination?
negative symptom definiton
abnormality that results in a normal function that has been lost
often seen as an absence of affect (emotion)
is schisophrenia heritable?
Yes. the more similar your genome to the person, the more likely you will have it. But extremely complex because it is expressed on many genes
What is the chance of an identical twins concordant for schizophrenia?
People with schizophrenia have a greater difficulty making _____________ than non schizophrenic people
smooth eye movements
Are adopted children who have schizophrenia more likely to have biological or adaptive parents with schizophrenia?
biological---shows its heritable
How many chromosomse are genes for schizophrenia located on?
15 of 23
What is the brain difference of a schizophrenic?
enlargerd lateral vesicles?
The larger the lateral ventricles.....
the worse response to medication
Do large ventricles mean a larger head?
lNo, tissue around the ventricles is just more compact.
What part of the brain is smaller in schizophrenics?
limbic structures (hippocampus and amygdala)
could be due to enlargement of ventricles
What cells in a schizophrenic appear disorganized?
hippocampal pyramidal cells
the more disorganization, the more impaired the person
What is the normal age of onset of schizophrenia?
What is characteristic of a brain of an early onset schizophrenic?
a thickened corpus collosum
also show a loss of cortical gray matter
What is the Wisconsin card sort?
4 cards laid down, must match colors according to a rule. If rule changed, normal people have no problem switching. In schizophrenics, they cannot switch rules.
What does the inability to switch rles in the Wisconsion card sort show?
damage in the frontal cortex, schizos show activity here during this game when healthy people do
underactivation of the frontal lobes is indicative of schiophrenia
schizophrenia results from either excessive levels of dopamine or highly sensitive dopamine receptors
how was dopamine hypothesis discovered
people who addicted to amphetamines studied and showed very similar symptoms to schizophrenics (amphetamine psychosis)
What is a neuroleptic?
a drug that blocks D2 dopamine receptors. Can be called an antipsychotic because decreases schizophrenic symptoms.
What is an example of a neuroleptic?
Dopamine hypothesis inconsistencies
dopamine results blocked rapidly, but symptoms are not decreased for weeks
atypical neuroleptics treat schizophrenia, but does not primarily block dopamine, but still works
what is an example of an atypical neuroleptic?
decreased activity at NMDA receptors leads to schizophrenia
how was the glutamate hypothesis proposed?
PCP is an NMDA antagonist and drug users show frontal cortex deficits similar to schizophrenics
If a pregnant woman gets the flue during her first trimester, the baby is more like to...
normal pain of social loss or sad feeling
psychiatric condistion that is consistent and persistent and needs to be treated
depression is not characterized by sadness, but a......
unhappy mood-----loss of interest, energy, appetite
depression is highly correlated to ______
the suicide rate has _________ as more mood altering drugs have been introduced
remained the exact same
what is the concordance rate for monozygotic twins for depression?
what is the concordance rate for dizygotic twins for depression?
So is there a genetic link to depression?
yes, but many genes are involved and it is very complex
Patients with depression show increased blood flow in the.......
frontal cortex and amygdala
Where is blood flow decreased in depression?
pariteal and posterior temporal complex
drugs that INCREASE monoamine sigaling decrease depressive symptoms
prevents the breakdown and therefore increases signaling.
Examples of monoamines...
respeseratonin and norepinephrine
What drug decreases release of monoamines and causes depression?
What else increases monoamine signaling?
Electroconvulsive shock therapy (EST) --- used for people that show now effect to drugs
suicide victims have lower....
levels of seratonin
attempters are 10x more likely to actually commit suicide later if levels are low
what are the most popular antidepressants?
seratonin reuptake inhibitors
neurogenesis in the hippocampus
SSRI's have an extremely strong....
SSRI's can lead to an ____________ in children
increase in dperession
HPA axis and depression
CRH from hypothalamus project to portal syem into portal veins
causes anterior pituitary to release ACTH
ACTH travels to the adrenal gland which then releases glucocorticoids into the bloodstream
depression resulting from very high glucocorticoid levels
Causes of Cushing's Disease
any problem in HPA access
1. pituitary tumor
2. adrenal gland tumor
3. cortisol replacement therapy
synthetic glucocorticoid that suppresses natural rise in cortisol levels first thing in the morning
In depressed patients, dexamthasone..
fails to lower cortisol levels
Dexamethasone data suggests that depressed people....
have CRH neurons that are abnormally excited
negative feedback system regulation is not working correctly
women suffer depression ______ than men
women are _______ as likely to have depression than men
What is the most common treatment of bipolar disorder?
We don't understand the mechanism of it
What are some key notes of an anxiety disorder?
Irrational fears, sense of terror, trouble breathing and feeling of loosing control
can lead to high rates of cardiovascular disease
What is the most common situation that ellicits a panic attack?
What brain difference to patients with panic attacks have?
temporal lobe abnormalities
What class of drugs treat anxiety?
benzosdiazepines (anxiolytics)-----GABA agonists
Valium most common
memories of unpleasant episode repeatedly plague victim----often victims of war
Intense trauma will activate what systems that sensitize the subject to future stimuli?
What conditions a long-term fear response?
rostral brain region---amygdala
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