An alteration that allows a steady state. Includes atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, dysplasia, and metaplasia.
Shrinkage in cellular size. Physiologic: Occur early in development. Ex: shrinkage of tonsils in early adolescence. Pathologic: Occurs from decreased workload, use, pressure, blood supply, nutrition, hormonal stimulation, and nervous stimulation. Ex: skeletal ms atrophy due to lack of use.
An increase in the size of cells, consequently increasing size of affected organ. Physiologic is growth of skeletal ms due to exercise. Pathologic is growth in cardiac ms due to HTN.
Increase in number of cells resulting from an increase rate of cellular division. Physiologic ex is liver regeneration and endometrial thickening. Pathologic ex is acromegaly from increase hormone stimulation.
AKA atypical hyperplasia. Refers to abnormal changes in the size, shape, and organization of mature cells. Not a true adaptive process, but related to hyperplasia. DOES NOT INDICATE CANCER. Happens in epithelial tissue of the cervix and respiratory tract.
The reversible replacement of one mature cell by another. Ex: replacement of normal epithelial cells on the lining of of the bronchial by stratified squamous epithelial cells.