The conversion of energy from the environment into a pattern of responses by the nervous system is called
Specialized sensory cells located in our sensory organs are called
The visual sensory cells are located on which structure of the eye?
Suppose we found someone with eyes that contained only cones and no rods. What should we expect to find about this person's vision?
impaired vision in dim lighting
Why can you see fine detail and color better if you look straight at an object than if you look out of the corner of your eye?
The object falls on the FOVEA, where there are many CONES
Which of the following claims about subliminal perception is true?
People's facial movements change depending on whether a happy, neutral, or angry face is presented subliminally
What does the olfactory sense detect?
Which of the following is NOT detected by the cutaneous senses?
the position and acceleration of the head
If could be argued that the direct connections between the olfactory receptors in the nose and the _______ account for the emotionality of olfactory memories
If some psychological characteristic or behavior depends to a large degree on ENVIRONMENT then we should expect to find that
adopted children resemble their adoptive parents but not their biological parents
T or F. Research on twins separated at birth has led scientists to begin identifying the exact genes that cause complex behaviors, such as hobbies, mate selection, and eventual career paths.
What was the major conclusion from the study we discussed that investigated the relative contribution of environment and genes in maze learning rats who were either bred to be maze "bright" or maze "dull" and reared in either restricted, normal, or enriched environments?
Both genetic tendencies and rearing environments influenced rats' ability to learn the maze. e.g. restricted environments impaired the bright rats' performance and enriched environments improved the dull rats' performance
An estimate of the variance (differences in behavior across indiv.) within a population that is DUE TO HEREDITY is known as ______ and ranges from 0 to 1
What evidence did Piaget demonstrate to support his idea that 6 month old children lack the concept of object permanence?
A child who watches the investigator cover a toy does not remove the cover to retrieve the toy
An investigator shows creates two rows with an equal number of M&Ms and then spreads out the candies in one of the rows-Kid says row with more spaces has more.
concept of conservation
in 1974 Harlow conducted a study about attachment with infant monkeys-cloth surrogate mothers and wire surrogate mothers. Results?
Monkeys preferred the cloth mothers even though the wire mother provided access to food.
The Strange Situation procedure is used to demonstrate
infant attachment behaviors
Mary Ainsworth described 4 general categories of attachment behaviors displayed by infants. Which is NOT one of those 4 categories
T or F. Longitudinal research has indicated that what is most important in terms of child rearing and parent. styles is that child is raised in home with biological mother and father
Which parenting style would fit the following description of parental behavior? Parents-little involvement and unaware
Psychologists define learning as
any change in behavior based upon experience
Classical conditioning occurs because of
the pairing of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (UCS) close in time
In classical conditioning, the process that removes or decreases a conditioned response (CR) is known as
When Ann was a college freshman, she was assigned to live in an old dorm. The plumbing-when taking a shower>flush toilet=hot water in shower. UCS, UCR, CS, CR
hot water, jumping back, toilet flush, jumping back
Little Albert study is classical conditioning of phobias. Scared of white rabbits, what is this?
Why did Thorndike conclude that his cats learned gradually by strengthening certain response tendencies rather than understanding or insight
the cats increased their speed of escaping from one trial to the next gradually, not suddenly
A different between classical conditioning and operant conditioning is that in operant conditioning
the individuals responses control the consequences (reinforcement or punishment)
What do positive punishment and negative punishment have in common?
they both weaken/decrease future occurrences of a behavior
Mother gives daughter candy with temper tantrum>tantrums increase. Operant process?