1 Module 4 - Chapter 24: Chinese and Korean Art after 1279 Unit 10: Qing Dynasty (p. 843-844) The Ming dynasty came to an end due to a series of problems caused by inattentive emperors who let the power shift to the hands of powerful eunuchs and corrupt bureaucrats. First there was a rebellion by a Ming general, which was followed by the Manchu conquest. Qing dynasty timeline: 1644-1911 CE Kangxi emperor: (r.1684-1707) Qianlong emperor: (r.1751-1784) In 1644, the armies of the Manchu people to the northeast of China marched into Beijing as liberators. As noted in the textbook many Chinese reacted as though the world had come to an end. However the situation turned out to be different. The new rulers or the Manchus very effectively got some of the Confucian officials to support them. While there was still some opposition by Ming loyalists, there was a general acceptance of the new rulers which led to a period of prosperity. The Manchus had already adopted many Chinese customs and institutions before their conquest. After gaining control of all of China, they showed great respect to Chinese tradition even while placing themselves at the top. The Ming social structure was continued with emperor maintaining the concept of the Son of Heaven and ruling from the Imperial Forbidden City at Beijing. Qing dynasty map 1 Population and trade increased on an unprecedented scale, and expansion of territory made China the richest and largest state in the world. The reign of Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong emperors represent the height of Qing cultural attainment. China came under some benevolent despots who established public works and woodblock printing press that stimulated intellectual life and they continued with the special civil service examinations for officials on Confucian classics. 1 http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/map/qing.html 2 They were great patrons and collectors of art. In art all the major trends of the late Ming dynasty continued almost without interruption into the Manchu or Qing dynasty. In the southern part of China as in previous centuries individualistic and progressive styles of arts and garden design flourished. Orthodox Painting: Painting of the Qing dynasty can generally be divided into two basic styles: ? The orthodox (literati) style and ? The individualistic or progressive style As noted in the textbook the literati painting was by now established as the dominant tradition. It became the orthodox style. Whenever a style is formulated into theory and prescribed as the ideal style it becomes repetitive and uninspired as in the case of the works of artists who followed Dong Qichang?s theories. Many scholars followed Dong Qichang?s recommendations and based their approach on the study of past masters and they painted large number of works in the manner of earlier Song and Yuan artists as a way of expressing their mastery and technique. The courtly and the conservative style was epitomized by the works of the ?Four Wangs?. All four artists had the same last name but not all of them were related. Wang Shimin (1592-1680) and his grandson, Wang Yuanqi (1642-1715), were the oldest and youngest, respectively, of the Four Wangs, the founding fathers of the Orthodox school who consolidated the style of the Wu school artists and the theories of Dong Qichang. The other two, Wang Jian (1598-1677) and Wang Hui (1632-1717) (described in the textbook) shared the styles, artistic allegiances, backgrounds and surname of Shimin and Yuanqi but were unrelated to them. 2 The orthodox style had a very limited repertory of forms. Most of the paintings will have one or more of the following features ? larger mountains repeating the shapes of smaller mountains combined with large dynamic and seemingly organic forms including rocks and trees. Atmosphere was barely indicated and there were no narrative elements at all in these paintings and limited colors were used. Brushwork gained a lot of importance since the color was muted. Wang Yuanqi (1642-1715): A significant figure and the youngest in this group was Wang Yuanqi. He served in the court of the Kangxi emperor. He had an exceptional career in the court, serving as a district magistrate, an appointed advisor on the imperial collection and finally as the editor in chief of the imperial encyclopedia of painting and calligraphy. As a court bureaucrat and artist he continued the tradition of many figures from the past but unlike the scholar-official-artist of the previous centuries who were very innovative Wang Yuanqi painted in the orthodox style of the court art. Wang Yuanqi?s inspiration came from the works of Huang Gong Wang of the Yuan period and Dong Qichang of the Ming period. In his own works Wang confined himself 2 Wang (ii) Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 3 almost entirely to landscape studies, usually without figures. Other details were reduced to the minimum and conventionalized. His pictures can be described as the essence of the theories of Dong Qichang in which pictorial effects and personal feelings were replaced by organization of elements of nature in terms of brushwork and forms. The painter?s purpose he believed was not to create beautiful scenery or to reproduce old compositions precisely; rather it is to capture the dynamic force (or qishi) in nature. 3 4 Figure 24-12a Wang Yuanqi, Wangchuan Villa, detail of a handscroll, ink and colors on paper, 14?*214 9/16?, Qing dynasty, 1711, Metropolitan Museum of Arts, New York Refer to the Metmuseum website given below to view the painting and its details (click on the alternate views for details) http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/qing_1/ho_1977.80.htm Figure 24-12a Wang Yuanqi, Wangchuan Villa: This example is from the Metropolitan Museum of Art and it is a representation based on a print of a legendary villa and garden from the eighth century Tang period and a popular theme for the eighth century poet and master Wang Wei. It is a very lengthy composition almost 17? long painted in ink with warm colors on paper. The colors are in the muted blue-green tones popularized in the Tang period. Multiple points of view are depicted in this landscape through tilted planes of the terrain, distorted shapes, and repetitive forms which gives a sense of rotational movement within the landscape. This serpentine motion within the landscape was described by the artist himself as dragon like (longmo) movement. This painting is based on a theory and in the Qing period it is representative of the orthodox tradition. Wang Hui (1632-1717): The next example is from the textbook and it is by an artist by the name of Wang Hui. He belonged to the early Qing period. He was one of the famous and prolific painters of his day with a very long and successful career. Unlike the other masters of the period who followed primarily Dong Qichang?s theory, Wang Hui?s aim was to synthesize all the classical styles of the early masters from the tenth century onwards. 3 Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill, Wang (ii) (2) Wang Yuanqi [Wang Yüan-ch?i; zi Maojing; hao Lutai], (b Taicang, Jiangsu Province, 1642; d 1715), Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 4 Image source http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/qing_1/ho_1977.80.htm 4 Figure 24-12 Wang Hui, Thousand Peaks and Myriad Ravines: This work is a summation of Wang Hui?s style. Consult the textbook for the description. Figure 24-12 Wang Hui, Thousand Peaks and Myriad Ravines, Qing Dynasty, 1693, Hanging Scroll, ink on paper, 8?2 ½? * 3?4 ½?, National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan Locate each characteristic element as described in the textbook. How does the inscription relate to the imagery? Also look at how the Qing emperors made literati painting into court painting? Why was it not a court style before then? In 1691, Wang Hui was commissioned by the Kangxi emperor to direct a team of artists to paint the Great Southern tour of the emperor ? a large and oversized scroll. This was one of the large projects that only a well organized dynasty like the Qing could commission and it completely falls under the court art and not the literati tradition. (it is included here because it was painted by Wang Hui). The Kangxi ruler visited the south to appease the citizens, since the resistance to the Manchu rule was intense. The emperor?s visit was a state visit to show concern for the southern states and in the process to influence locals and win over support to the new regime. There are two sets of this example one in the Palace Museum at Beijing and the other one at the Metropolitan Museum. In these examples Wang Hui?s long experience organizing large compositions with minute details of both the landscape and the narrative and his ability to direct the 5 court workshop is visible. Wang Hui is said to have added only the landscape and a few details, while the team did most of the work. Therefore these works are most certainly different from the personal works of the artist which he completed alone and signed them as well. By the time Wang Hui was invited to the court, he already had a long and fruitful career. His reputation as a great artist was already established. The painting is enormous almost 45? in length and it was painted in ink and color on silk. It is a unique pictorial record of history ? the royal journey through present day Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. 5 The series consists of twelve scrolls filled with details of landscapes, figures, horses, caravans winding through bridges and mountains and valleys. The image below is from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Fig 24-12b, Wang Hui and his assistants, The Kangxi Emperor's Southern Tour, Scroll Three: Ji'nan to Mount Tai: The third scroll according to the Metropolitan Museum of Art website shows the route of the emperor through the city of Jinan to Mt. Tai where the emperor was to conduct a ceremony. 6 Fig 24-12b, Wang Hui and his assistants, The Kangxi Emperor's Southern Tour, Scroll Three: Ji'nan to Mount Tai, Qing dynasty, d. 1691-1698, handscroll, ink and color on silk, 26 11/16 * 548 ½?, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Refer to the Metmuseum website given below to view the painting and its details (click on the alternate views for details) http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/09/eac/ho_1979.5.htm The rolling undulating hills interspersed with clouds and trees create a circular pattern which then leads to the next scene thus creating a constant movement. The gentle rhythm and flow create a constant ebb and flow while revealing the activity of the entourage or open vistas. The emperor probably took a personal interest in commissioning these series of scrolls to be viewed by him and the selected few within his circle. 5 P.494, Sherman Lee, History of Far Eastern Art, Prentice Hall, 1994 6 Image source http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/09/eac/ho_1979.5.htm 6 Gao Qipei (1672-1732) was a Qing orthodox painter of Manchu birth. 7 He had a successful official career at the courts of the Qing-dynasty emperors Kangxi (1662?1722) and Yongzheng (1723?35), and his duties afforded him time to paint. From the age of 20 Gao was anxious about establishing a distinctive style. Gao?s solution, which allegedly came to him in a dream, was to paint with his fingers rather than with a brush. He used the balls of his fingers or his whole hand to apply washes and broad strokes; for lines he used a long fingernail which was split like a pen, but he also painted large landscapes with a brush. Although both the smaller-scale finger paintings and the more conventional brush landscapes by Gao were very popular at the court, it was generally accepted that his finger paintings had brought him renown?though, due to the supreme position of the brush and its techniques in Chinese painting, critics were at pains to champion his brush works. Since his finger-paintings met with so much success, and since he found it easier, with increasing years, to work with his fingers, he abandoned the brush completely, and consequently brush works by him are rare. One of the finger paintings by Gao Qipei is from the Nelson Atkins Museum of Art. Figure 24-12c Gao Qipei, A Pine Branch: This is from the album Finger paintings of Assorted Subjects. In this representation of a simple branch of a pine, Gao Qipei has used his finger tips to delineate the angular strokes of the branches and his finger nails to scratch the lines of the pine leaves - very effectively communicating the symbol of winter through his innovative and economical new technique. Figure 24-12c Gao Qipei, A Pine Branch, from the album Finger paintings of Assorted subjects, before 1712, Album leaf, ink and light color on paper, 14 ¼? * 22 ¾?, Qing dynasty, Nelson Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri The calligraphy reveals the signature and seal of the artist as well as the date. Many of the works by Gao Qipei were commissioned and the length of the inscriptions in these works clearly indicate the importance of the clients. Individualist Painting: As noted in the textbook the Manchu conquest was not a great shock for China as a whole. But its first few decades were both traumatic and dangerous for those who were loyal-or related-to the Ming. Some committed suicide rather than surrender to Manchus 7 Source of information on Gao Qipei: Vyvyan Brunst, with James Cahill, Gao Qipei, Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 7 while others sought refuge in monasteries or wandered the countryside. Among them were several painters who expressed their anger, defiance, frustration and melancholy in their art. They took Dong Qichang idea of painting as an expression of the artist?s feelings very seriously and cultivated highly original styles. These painters were called the individualists. The individualist movement of the later part of the Ming period was sustained during the early Qing by the painter-calligraphers Zhu da (1626-1705) also known by his Buddhist name of Bada Shanren. He belonged to the Ming royal line and he opposed the conquerors, so he fled to the south and became a Chan Buddhist priest and painter. He was an eccentric and a reclusive figure who, started out working in a Chan monastery but at the time of the passing away of his master he disassociated himself from the monastery by burning his priest?s robe. Zhu Da painted flowers, birds and landscapes in a distinctive and highly dramatic calligraphic style. Zhu da?s work comprises of two distinct styles. During the early part of his career his works followed the principles set forth by Dong Qichang. His concern however was not on the theories or compositional problems rather his focus was on the mass and lines in his paintings to create great ?transformations? 8 of earlier landscapes. Figure 24-13a Zhu Da, Landscape after Guo Zhonshu: is a hanging scroll (see image below) from the Cleveland Museum of Art. According to the inscription, the painting is based on the style of the tenth century master Guo Zhongshu but it is a complete ?transformation? of a Song tenth century painting. In the off-centered and angled representation of the mountains, in its twisting monumentality and the boldness of the brushwork 9 the originality of Zhu Da comes through. The landscape emerges from the middle ground and completely dominates the scroll while compressing the space. The mountains are built up through swift staccato brushwork that the viewer can sense the immediacy of the forms against the white of the paper. All the elements of the tenth century landscape are visible ? the peaks emerging from the clouds, a boat appearing between the cliffs, the empty pavilion in the middle ground a reference to the Yuan literati paintings and a lonely figure holding a staff and standing on the foreground cliff but his concern was not in realistic representation but calligraphic brushwork. His iconoclastic view of life and art are visible in his unique approach to the traditional landscapes of the past. 8 P.168 Mary Tregear, Chinese Art, Revised edition, 1997,Thames & Hudson Ltd, London 9 P.498, Sherman Lee, History of Far Eastern Art, Prentice Hall, 1994 8 Figure 24-13a Zhu Da Landscape after Guo Zhonshu, hanging scroll, ink and silk on paper, 42.5? x 22?, China, Qing Dynasty, Cleveland Museum of Art (refer to the Museum web site below to view the painting in detail) http://www.clemusart.com/explore/artistwork.asp?searchText=Zhu+da&tab=1&recNo=0&woRecNo=0 Zhu da?s second style gives a clearer view of his preoccupation with calligraphic brushwork. It was an extremely spontaneous and abbreviated style that appealed to the Japanese Zen painters and it became a popular style there. Figure 24-13b Zhu Da Fish and Rocks, Section of the handscroll, ink on paper, h 11 ½? * 62?, China, Qing dynasty, Cleveland Museum of Art (refer to the Museum web site below to view the painting in detail) http://www.clemusart.com/explore/artistwork.asp?searchText=Zhu+da&tab=1&recNo=0&woRecNo=1 9 Figure 21-13b Zhu Da Fish and Rocks: painted about 1691 is highly original and individualistic (see image above). The space seems to be indeterminate. On the right is an overhanging rock with chrysanthemums followed by the inscription and an unusual rock that is almost in the shape of a human head in profile with a pointed nose and a paired fish to the left. The inscriptions link the fish to the artist and a relative 10 whose hopes for a position in the Ming court came to a disappointing end due to the new Manchu rule. The allusions in the poem and the unusual juxtapositions of the rock, flowers and fishes reflect the artists? view of a world in disarray. Technically skilled in all forms of brushwork from dry to wet Zhu da has treated this painting as well as his other abbreviated works in the form of abstract calligraphic designs. Shitao (1642-1707): The other individualist described in the textbook is Shitao also known as Daoji, although he himself preferred the name Yuanji. He was a descendant of the Ming dynasty. In 1645, in the face of invading Manchu troops, a family servant fled with Daoji to nearby Quanzhou, Guangxi Province, and in 1647 they found refuge in a Buddhist monastery. He began a wandering life as a Buddhist monk and artist which took him to most of the commercial centers of the time such as Anhui, Nanjing, Beijing and Yangzhou. Shitao was a painter, landscape designer and writer. His famous theoretical writings Huayu lu completed in 1700 CE was one of the most original and brilliantly written text in which he takes a stand against imitation espoused by Dong Qichang and promotes creativity and individualism. 11 Figure 24-13c Shi Tao, Autumn Mountain: An album with twelve leaves from the Metropolitan Museum of Art includes a painting called the Autumn Mountain (see image below). Painted in green and blue the whole focus of the scene revolves around Shi Tao?s characteristic brushwork. Powerful brushwork and lines are used to delineate the valleys, rocks and stream. The whole scene is pulsating with energy and movement derived primarily through abstraction and the originality of his composition. Linear vertical brush strokes are used for the trees while writhing horizontal strokes form the striations of the rocks. The seals in red are rendered in the distinctive clerical script and reveal the signature of the artist. As noted in the Metropolitan Museum of Art website ?despite its small size, the scenery appears truly monumental. Brushstrokes?rock outlines, texture strokes, a running stream, foliage patterns, and "moss dots"?crisscross each other, building and expanding until the whole turns into a powerful flowing design of undulating forces and counterforce?s.? 12 10 P.332 R. Thorp & R. Vinograd, Chinese Art & Culture, Prentice Hall, 2001 11 Wen Fong, Daoji, Theoretical writings, Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 12 http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/qing_1/hod_1976.280k.htm 10 Figure 24-13c Shi Tao, Autumn Mountain, hanging scroll, ink and color on paper, h 6 1/2 x 4 1/8? each, China, Qing dynasty Metropolitan Museum of Art, (refer to the Museum web site below to view the other sections of the album) http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/qing_1/ho_1976.280a.htm Figure 24-13 Shitao, Landscape: The example below is from the book showing the gradual transformation of the work into more abstract forms. All the vocabulary of the traditional landscape has been enlarged individualized and animated. Read the textbook for description. Figure 24 -13 Shitao, Landscape, leaf from an album of landscapes, Qing dynasty, c. 1700Ce, ink and color on paper, 91/2 * 11?, Collection C.C. Wang family 11 Professional painters in Southern Cities such as Suzhou, Nanjing and Yangzhou: Gong Xian was another major artist from the Qing period. His works are renowned for their solidity of form and textural characteristics. Although trained as a scholar he was unable to serve the government during the Manchu rule due to his loyalty to the Ming regime. He was associated with a movement for political reform and due to circumstances unknown he had to take flight and retreat to his rural village and live in seclusion. 13 In order to support himself he became a professional painter even though he considered it to be the most demeaning situation for himself. The range of his style was not varied rather it was very limited but it was dramatic in force and impact. Figure 24-13d Gong Xian, Thousand Peaks and Myriad Ravines, Hanging scroll, ink on paper, h 24 3/8? * 40 1/8?, China, Qing dynasty, Rietberg Museum, Zurich Figure 24-13d Gong Xian, Thousand Peaks and Myriad Ravines: A unique and unusual Chinese painting is this example (see image above) by Gong Xian which is notable for its expressive and monumental quality. The title of the painting is the same as figure 21-12 but the approach is different. The whole surface is filled with sharp hills, angled rocks, ravines, clouds and mist. There are no figures in the work which adds to its desolate quality further heightened by repetitive contrast of the black, grey and white. The powerful tonal contrasts along with the precipitous angles of the buttes add to the mood of melancholy to the painting. This contrast or the clear demarcation of light and shade and the depth seen in this work is generally attributed to the influence of western topographical prints in the mannerist style 14 brought into China by the Jesuits. Many scholars believe the events from his personal and political life affected the final outcome of his works. 13 Jerome Silbergeld, Gong Xian, Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 14 P.344 R. Thorp & R. Vinograd, Chinese Art & Culture, Prentice Hall, 2001 12 Zheng Xie (1693-1765) was a scholar, civil service official as well as an artist referred to as professional literatus, 15 painted primarily for the market and became very successful. The subject matter painted by Zheng Xie dealt primarily with literati themes - chiefly bamboo, orchids, rocks and chrysanthemums that followed all the theories put forward by the scholars but his works were sold for cash. He lived in the city of Yangzhou where the merchants were eager to have access to the trappings of high culture and literati works were an object of commodity. 16 Figure 24-13e Zheng Xie, Orchids, Bamboo and Rock, Qing dynasty, Hanging Scroll, ink on paper, Palace Museum, Beijing Figure 24-13e, Zheng Xie, Orchids, Bamboo and Rock: This work is very expressive and is dominated by the swift strokes that delineate the orchids, bamboos and the calligraphy. He has integrated the calligraphy with the bamboo that it asserts itself in the pictorial space and sets its own distinctive rhythm in dark black ink against the surging growth of the stems and leaves. He has represented these traditional themes in a reductive style but very quickly due to the demands placed by the merchant patrons and his ever increasing rate of production primarily for the market. Zheng Xie was also renowned for posting a price list in his studio in which he set the cost of commissioned works by size from large to small and at the same time discouraging bargain-hunters and those intent on obtaining a work as a social favor. He was a legend during his life time not only for his paintings but also for his lifestyle. He mingled with scholars, Buddhist priest, Manchu guards and imperial scions and was known for his wit 15 P.346 ibid 16 Image source: http://www.threeemperors.org.uk/index.php?pid=14, exhibition China:The Three Emperors, Royal Academy of Arts, 12 November 2005-17 April 2006 13 and ability to deal with a variety of people. 17 The commercialization of art, the role of the patronage as well as the changing market in cities such as Yangzhou is reflected in the works of professional artists such as Zheng Xie. Qing Patronage: The Qing period was one of great territorial expansion, with the Kangxi (r.1662?1722) and Qianlong (r.1736?96) emperors exercising their vast powers across a large territory embracing parts of Central Asia, Tibet and South-east Asia. These two, in particular, are known as great patrons of the intellectual and visual arts. The court arts were generally conservative. The palace Museum collection that we see today in the city of Beijing and Taipei was formed during the reign of Qing emperors primarily under the reign of Qianlong. The art and craft production reached unprecedented heights serving the needs of the imperial family in palace architecture, furnishings, luxury items, textiles, paintings and calligraphy; along with objects made primarily for gift giving; followed by mass production of ceramics at the imperial kilns at Jingdezhen and production of objects related with Lamaist Buddhist religion. The court patronage and production of arts reached great heights with court workshops hiring and retaining craftsman for a period of time to work in various mediums such as ivory, jade and precious materials. Once the work was completed they were allowed return to their own profession. 18 Collecting works and cataloguing works also became a major activity for the Qing courts. One detrimental factor with all the works being concentrated in the court was that only a privileged few could view the arts; generally most artists lost access to many early works of art. The reign of Qianlong, (see portrait below) the fourth Chinese emperor of the Qing dynasty was significant for its achievement in all areas ? political, cultural and military. He ruled for sixty years like his ancestor Kangxi and died at the age of eight-nine. During his reign he took personal interest in arts and he traveled to the far reaches of the empire to maintain peace. The Qianlong period has been called one of the ?golden ages? in Chinese art since the emperor himself was personally involved in painting, calligraphy and collection. Some of the examples from the tremendous amount of art work produced during his reign are portable items because Qianlong was the most mobile emperor in Chinese history. 19 He traveled for almost two months of every year along with his entourage. 17 Ju-Hsi Chou, Zheng Xie,(b Xinghua, Jiangsu Province, 1693; d 1765), Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 18 P.73 Craig Clunas, Art in China, Oxford university press, 1997 19 p. 91, Ho Chuimei & Bronson Bennet, Splendors of China?s Forbidden City, The Glorious Reign of Emperor Qianlong, The Field Museum, Merrell, London, 2004 14 20 Giuseppe Castiglione (Lang Shining), Inauguration portrait of Emperor Qianlong, 1736, handscroll, ink and color on silk, 20.7? * 268.4?, Cleveland Museum of Art Figure 24-13f Portable brush case with five drawers: This item was made of Qianlong?s use during his tours. Since the emperor was an avid writer and all the events during his tours had to be recorded - the four treasures of the study such as writing brushes, paper, ink stone and ink stick accompanied the ruler. Interesting patterns, design, forms and unique materials mark the packaging of the stationary items. This example is made out of dull red cinnabar lacquer on bamboo core. The exterior consists of multi- layered lacquer with a range of patterns derived from nature carved in deep relief. It is also inscribed with inscriptions by Emperor Qianlong. The case holds fifty rabbit-hair writing brushes. The brush tips of two of the brushes have been removed and lie in front of the case. 21 This was an exclusive piece; his staff probably had less ornate writing equipment that accompanied them at all times to record history. 22 Figure 24-13f Portable brush case with five drawers, cinnabar lacquer, bamboo, rabbit hair, h 14 ½?, Qianlong period, Palace Museum, Beijing 20 Image source: http://www.clemusart.com/explore/work.asp?searchText=Qianlong&display=&tab=2&recNo=0&view=more 21 P.98 Ho Chuimei & Bronson Bennet, Splendors of China?s Forbidden City, The Glorious Reign of Emperor Qianlong, The Field Museum, Merrell, London, 2004 22 Source: http://www.dpm.org.cn/English/E/e3/E3b.html#chap1 15 Jade production underwent its glorious age during the Qing period. A number of factors, such as political stability, economic prosperity, growth in foreign trade and greater attention to the arts combined to bring about unprecedented development in the industry. With better organization at the jade mines and new skills acquired in quarrying, huge quantities of jade were available in a wide variety of colors and in large sizes. Qing jades are unsurpassed in accuracy of detail, complexity of design and difficulty of execution. Carving objects in jade was integral to the palace workshop during the Qianlong period. (Some of the largest examples of Chinese jades were created during this period. The largest jade in the world, almost 7?3? high is today in the Palace Museum at Beijing. (no image) Figure 24-13g Jade Mountain: This example was also created during the Qing period. At 6? high it recreates a recurring theme in Chinese art which is an isle of mountains - a Daoist theme. 23 Figure 24-13g Jade Mountain, h 6? Qing dynasty, 18 th century, Qing dynasty, British Museum , London It refers to the yearning of a Daoist to escape from the orderly bureaucratic society to one of freedom and escape. The mountains were also the home of the immortals, here depicted with sages and pavilions symbolizing paradise and the attainment of everlasting life. The range of carving from smooth to angular to textural creates great variation and 23 Image source:China, VIII, Jade Carving, Qing and after (from 1644), Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 16 interest while at the same time relating it to the Great Chinese landscapes of the earlier centuries. Ceramics: During the Qing period Chinese ceramics was created both for domestic consumption and for export. The ceramics created for domestic consumption has a different design and decoration than the ones for export. The decoration was determined by the local taste. Figure 24-13h Celadon vase decorated with over glaze enamels: A popular domestic ware from the Qing period was the polychrome ceramic ware combined with enamel colors. From the reign of Yongzheng (1723-35CE) China started producing enamels indigenously. The decoration in many of these pieces was colorful and ranged from flowers and birds to landscapes and human figures. 24 Fig 24-13h Celadon vase decorated with over glaze enamels, Qianlong reign period, 1736?96 Victoria and Albert Museum, London This example is a very elegant piece with two gilded elephant handles and landscape decoration places within medallions in blue enamel and colorful details. The details of the landscape include towering mountains, temple towers, bridges and flowing water, every element depicted in exquisite detail. In open spaces are inscriptions in flowing script a reference to the landscape. The underside of the ceramics from this time frame also includes marks or seals ? indicating that they were ?made by imperial command? 25 at the imperial kiln or workshop. 24 Image source: China VII, 3(vii)a: ceramics: Qing-period Jingdezhen wares, official and popular wares, Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 25 ibid 17 One of the most fascinating objects from China from the time of the 16 th century onwards was ceramics. At the end of the 16th century a new type of export porcelain was developed in Jingdezhen, the so-called Kraak ware. Its Dutch name derived from the carac, the type of Portuguese cargo ship in which it was initially transported. Kraak wares, which were created in or on a mould, generally have under glaze blue decoration, thin walls and decoration placed in bands. 26 Most of the Chinese kraakware was made for European markets primarily practical items like cups and plates in varying sizes all decorated with images placed within panels like the example below. 27 Fig 24-13i Dish, early 17 th century, Chinese for the European Market, hard past, 11 ¼?, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Fig 24-13i Dish: The standard feature of the kraakware include multiple panels in the rim with designs. In this example the design include an alternation of sunflowers and emblems. The central scene of ducks on a pond and the paneled motifs are among the numerous variants on the basic format of this extensive class of export porcelain. 28 Most of the designs were prescribed by the European companies. Sometimes the design was exclusively European; in certain cases a combination of Chinese and European elements can be found. The Portuguese East India trading companies were the first to trade with the East Asian countries. This was followed by the well organized Dutch east India Company who used their superior organization to displace others and started purchasing porcelain 26 C. J. A. JÖrg China vii, Export ceramics, Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 27 Image source: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ewpor/hod_1995.268.1.htm 28 Image and source of information: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ewpor/hod_1995.268.1.htm 18 systematically. Kraak porcelain was still used for tableware such as plates, saucers and bowls. For tea ware and other more fashionable or exclusive pieces, transitional porcelain (produced by independent potters who were not under imperial control) was preferred. The trading companies of Britain and the other European countries soon entered into the ceramic market. From the eighteenth century onwards the East India companies sent ceramics as models along with engravings of popular European designs to be copied onto the porcelain wares. First at Jingdezhen and later at Canton many of the Western special order porcelains were fired in special low-fire kilns to fuse the over glaze colored enamels on to already fired vessels. The colors ranged from blue-white to grisaille and then on to famille verte (green) and famille rose (rose). 29 Figure 24-13jChine de Commande service with ?rose canton? decoration, 1800-30 Newark Museum, New Jersey, Photo credit, The Newark Museum/Art Resource NY Figure 214-13j Chine de Commande service with ?rose canton? decoration: The most sought after ceramics at this time was the enamel ware vessels with porcelain primarily in pink colors called the famille rose. Many of these special order export wares (Chine de commande) carried the European designs such as the coats of arms or motifs which included European figures or floral decoration. The arced plate and dishes seen above has floral pattern in pink colors in the middle and a border decorated with floral designs placed both within medallions and outside of it. Many of the dish covers were provided with the popular gilded cover. In contrast to the ceramics made for export, the Chinese created highly valued earthen ware teapots in a location called Yixing in the southern part of China near the city of Suzhou. These earthen wares called Yixing ware was highly valued by scholars in the 29 Image source: C. J. A. JÖrg China vii, Export ceramics, Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 19 south for their rustic quiet designs which gave it an earthy quality connecting the users to the simplicity of nature and it was valued for brewing good tea. The Yixing ware was unique because the potter?s signature was incorporated on to the object as early as the 16 th century. This trend continued into the 18 th and 19 th century when poetic quotations were combined along with the craftsman?s signature. Yixing quickly gained a reputation for refined and collectable items. The most unique aspect of these wares was the color, usually deep brown color produced when refined clay, with its high iron content, was fired under the correct conditions. The size was usually small and the surface was generally smooth or various textures was incoporated. 30 Figure 24-13k Yixing ware teapot with three friends of Winter design. 6.1? * 3.1?, Qing , 18 th century or later, Art Museum of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, China Figure 24-13k Yixing ware teapot with three friends of Winter design: The potter Cheng Ming Yuan has ingenuously used a traditional theme from Chinese art ? Three friends of Winter into an unique form. Pine bark, blossoms of prunus and bamboo nodes and leaves has been incorporated in the handle, spout and the knob of the teapot. The body of the vessel is in the form a tree trunk with a hole and rodent ? the whole effect is very lively and animated. On the base of the vessel is the inscription of Ming Yuan and in the interior is the seal of the artist firmly identifying the artist as well as following a trend integral to Yixing ware that is incorporating calligraphy into pottery. Seen below is another example of Yixing ware from the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art at Kansas City which has smooth and streamlined surface with linear decoration of few figures and inscriptions. 30 Source: http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/ics/amm/ (ceramics) Art Museum Chinese University of Hong Kong 20 Teapot in the form of a Rice Measure, late 18 th century, Yixing ware (stone ware with incised decoration and inscriptions, 2 ½ * 5? by Huang YÜ-lin, Qing dynasty, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City Missouri Guiseppe Castiglione: One of the most important court artists at this time was Guiseppe Castiglione an Italian painter, architect and Jesuit lay brother and catholic missionary, active in Portugal and China. Castiglione is the only Western artist to be included in the Chinese imperial collections. He was called Lan Shi?ning by the Chinese. His long career spanned the reigns of Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong eras. He was specially trained as a painter of religious subjects before being sent to China. Much of Castiglione?s Chinese paintings were pictorial documentation. He painted portraits of the nobility, scenes of court life and various historic events marking the reign of the Qianlong emperor. He also painted rare animals sent in tribute, rare birds and the horses highly valued by the emperor and he used the western illusionistic perspective and the tonal values highly valued by the Chinese court. 31 Fig 21-13LGuiseppe Castiglione, One Hundred Horses at Pasture, Section of the handscroll, ink and color on silk, Qing dynasty, China, National Palace Museum of Taipei Fig 24-13LGuiseppe Castiglione, One Hundred Horses at Pasture: In this long handscroll painting (see image above), hundred horses are shown in a variety of activities. Using perspective to suggest depth and a range of values to create the effect of light, Castiglione has used Chinese materials and Western techniques to impart a sense of realism to this native theme. In addition to the shadows, Castiglione has adapted the traditional texture stroke methods of Chinese painting especially for the trees and the 31 Image source: http://www.npm.gov.tw/en/e030101.htm 21 mountains to give the objects even more substance. The emphasis on washes of color in the background, however, still reveals the focus on native techniques. Lamaist Buddhism at the Qing court: The court sponsored arts included religious arts. The Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty were officially followers of Tibetan and Mongolian Lamaist form of Buddhism along with state rituals associated with the Chinese concept of Heaven. There were political reasons for patronizing Buddhism, which was primarily to maintain peaceful relationship with Tibetan and Mongol territories. Some of the Sino-Tibetan art forms to evolve at this time was in architecture such as the Lamaist temples at Chengde ? the location of the imperial summer palace and elaborate Buddhist art works were commissioned in the Qing court Figure 24-13m Stupa Shrine: One of the lavish religious objects from the Qing times was a grand cloisonné stupa shrine produced for a Buddhist hall of worship at the Forbidden City. The size is enormous rising to almost 7? high, with the cloisonné enamels of brilliant colors placed within metal thread work. The stupa includes a three tier base with winding Sanskrit inscriptions from the Buddhist texts followed by the shrine itself and the thirteen step tower. Figure 24-13m Stupa Shrine, Qing, 1782, Cloisonne, h 7?5?, The Palace Museum, Beijing In Chinese cloisonné, designs in threads of bronze are first welded on to a bronze body. The partitions, or cloisons, thus created are filled in with enamels of various colors. The 22 object is then fired, burnished until the edges of the sections are visible and level with the enamel and leafed with gold. 32 Garden design: Beijing and the Forbidden City remained the Chinese capital during the Qing period and was embellished with new buildings on an impressive scale, increasingly in brick and stone. The symmetrical conventions of city planning were considered less important in the Qing. Buildings were brightly colored, with glazed tiles and painted woodwork, and featured sculpted stone columns, balustrades and bridges. On the outskirts of Beijing, the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors built summer palaces according to designs influenced by European architectural engravings. The fascination with western style garden led to the construction of Yuanmingyuan garden in 1700 CE during the reign of Kangxi emperor. Various additions continued for 150 years under various rulers. Fig 24-13n The Yuanmingyuan, the imperial garden at the summer palace, to the north- west of the city, had pavilions in an Italian Baroque style set in Italianate gardens with mechanical fountains and symmetrical design. Guiseppe Castiglione was asked to collaborate in the design of this structure which was an imitation of western style buildings, gateways and gardens. Fig 21-13n The Yuanmingyuan ruins, Beijing, Qing dynasty, China 32 China, XIII, other arts, Cloisonne, Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 23 This garden was destroyed by the English and French troops in 1860 during the second opium war when the Chinese refused to grant further trading rights and access within the country. With the burgeoning population, the arrival of the Western powers and missionaries in China?s shores, China was confronted with lot of pressures for which the traditional bureaucracy had no solution. The last century of the Qing rule was a gradual decline both in the cultural and political sphere. That is it for this unit! We start with the revolutions and the modern period in Chinese Art in the next unit. China Study guide: Unit 10: Qing Dynasty (p. 843-844) Qing dynasty timeline: 1644-1911 CE Kangxi emperor: (r.1684-1707) Qianlong emperor: (r.1751-1784) Orthodox Painting: (Four Wangs) Figure 24-12a Wang Yuanqi, Wangchuan Villa (not in textbook refer to unit outlines) Figure 24-12 Wang Hui, Thousand Peaks and Myriad Ravines (from the textbook) Fig 24-12b, Wang Hui and his assistants, The Kangxi Emperor's Southern Tour, Scroll Three: Ji'nan to Mount Tai (not in textbook refer to unit outlines) Individualist Painting: Figure 24-13a Zhu Da, Landscape after Guo Zhonshu (not in textbook refer to unit outlines) Figure 24-13b Zhu Da Fish and Rocks (not in textbook refer to unit outlines) Figure 24-13c Shi Tao, Autumn Mountain (not in textbook refer to unit outlines) Figure 24-13 Shitao, Landscape (from the textbook) Professional painters: Figure 24-13d Gong Xian, Thousand Peaks and Myriad Ravines (not in textbook refer to unit outlines) Figure 24-13e, Zheng Xie, Orchids, Bamboo and Rock (not in textbook refer to unit outlines) Qing Patronage: Figure 24-13f Portable brush case with five drawers (not in textbook refer to unit outlines) Figure 24-13g Jade Mountain (not in textbook refer to unit outlines) Figure 24-13h Celadon vase decorated with over glaze enamels (not in textbook refer to unit outlines) Fig 24 -13i Dish (not in textbook refer to unit outlines) Figure 24-13j Chine de Commande service with ?rose canton? decoration (not in textbook refer to unit outlines) Figure 24-13k Yixing ware teapot with three friends of Winter design (not in textbook refer to unit outlines) Fig 24-13LGuiseppe Castiglione, One Hundred Horses at Pasture (not in textbook refer to unit outlines) Lamaist Buddhism at the Qing court: Figure 24-13m Stupa Shrine (not in textbook refer to unit outlines) Garden design Fig 24-13n The Yuanmingyuan (not in textbook refer to unit outlines) Owner Microsoft Word - QING DYNASTY Unit 10.doc
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