-Flux of displaced farmers into cities....urbanization
-laws biased to mercantile and capitalist interest
Consequences of Industrial Revolution
-Changes in the nature of work
-Changes in human relations / societal values (interact w/ more strangers)
-inventions in machines/military weapons
describes how societies operate and how people relate to one another and respond to their surroundings.
-based on the notion that social events can best be explained in terms of the functions they perform--the contributions they make to the continuity of a society.
ex: importance of heart on body and the continuation of the organ
-importance of moral consensus in maintaining order and stability in society
know to, intended by the participants
Consequences of that activity, participants UNaware
-social facts: aspects that shape our actions as individuals.
-Specialized institutions (political sys, religion, family) must work in harmony with each other and function as a whole = organic solidarity
-ideas or values humans hold that are the main sources of social change
social change is prompted by economic influences.
Conflicts between classes (rich vs. poor)
-Capitalism: class system in which conflict between classes is common b/c it is in the interests of the ruling class to exploit the working class and in the interests of the workers to seek to overcome that exploitation.
involves: production of goods, those who own factory form a ruling class
Future: societies will no longer be split, communal ownership
-cultural ideas and values help shape society and affect our individual actions, not just economic changes (ex: christian beliefs)
-rejected the materialist conception of history
-BUREAUCRACY: organization divided into jobs, officials ranked according to a hierarchy. Large org. run efficiently but poses problems for effective democratic participartion
-competing self-interest, and the search for dominance
-Those w/ most power impose their cultural beliefs on others, thus conflict
-inequality based on class, race, gender, characterize society
-when an idea, invention, or some other cultural item is borrowed from a foreign source.
abstract ideas about what is desirable, proper, good, bad.
What individuals value is strongly influenced by the specific culture in which they happen to live.
ex: some cultures it is okay to have many wives, other monogamy
Rules of conduct that specify appropriate behavior in a range of social situations.
-prescribes a given type of behavior or forbids it.
-ex: how in some countries ppl are close to in-laws and in others they keep far distance
-imaginative thought to the asking and answering of sociological questions.
-thinking away from the familiar routines of daily life.
-Questioning common assumptions
-Mills: looking beyond what is obvious to everyone
Agents of Socialization
-groups or social contexts within which processes of socialization take place.
infancy and childhood, most intense period of cultural learning
Learn language and basic behavioral patterns that form the foundation for later learning.
later in childhood and into maturity.
Agent=schools, peers, groups/clubs, the media.
Help people learn the values, norms, and beliefs.
Goffman sees social life as though played out by actors on stage, because how we act depends on the roles (status position) we are playing
-people are sensitive to how they are seen by others and use many forms of "impression management" (preparing for the presentation of one's social role) to compel others to react to them in the ways they wish
-do w/o conscious attention
aspect of social interaction: humans try to move through life without embarrassing or humiliating others
when individuals exhibit mutual awareness of one another's presence but do not engage in direct communication / conversation.
-non-verbally through their posture and facial and physical gestures
-leaves passersby disoriented and leaves victims unable to articulate what has happened.
-closely tied up with overarching class, gender, and racial structures
-The fear/anxiety generated helps constitute the outside statuses and forces that in turn influence the interactions themsleves
When passersby quickly glance at each other and then look away.
-Each individual indicates recognition of the other person's presence but avoids any gesture that might be taken as too intrusive
judging other cultures in terms of the standards of one's own
-looking at other cultures through the eyes of one's own culture, and thereby misrepresent them.
In practicing sociology, we must remove our own cultural blinders in order to see the ways of life of different peoples in an unbiased light.
-Judging a society by its own standards
-material or economic factors have a prime role in determining historical change...not ideas or values
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