phospholipid bilayer, a sidedness to it (coming from complex phospho. and proteins) and a mosaic
the incorrect aspect of the cytoplasmic membrane given in class was....
lack of patchyness of proteins, lack of rafts.
phospholipid bilayer contains...
2 fatty acid chains with hydrophillic and hydrophobic ends, with hydrophillic ends sticking out.
Types of FA chains
saturated: fully hydrogenated: CH3ch2ch2ch2ch3 Mono-unsaturated (one dbl bond): ch3ch2ch2chchch2ch3 Poly-unsaturated (2+dbl bond): Ch3ch2chchch2chchch3 Can be cis or trans (cis better)
3 types of lipids we talked about
simple lipid, phospholipid, complex phospholipid
simple lipid components
Glycerol backbone with 3 FA tails ending in methyl groups. Cis is better than trans for simple lipids. Many types of simple lipid FA chains
glycerol backbone with 2 FA's and a phosphate
glycerol backbone with 2 FA, phosphate, and polar head grp coming off the phosphate
Complex phospholipids are a common target for antibacterial agents b/c...
the phospholipids found in eukaryotes is different than those found in bateria.
3 types of protein sidedness and function.
inner membrane: energy, transport, DNA binding proteins transmembrane(both leaflets): energy, nutrients, electron transport chain outer: flagellar activity, cell wall synthesis
strategies for bacteria gettign iron:
important b/c used in electron transport chain 1. Kill epithelial cells using toxin (RBC for hemoglobin or muscle cells for myoglobin 2. produce iron transport proteins.
Gram + cell wall
Peptidoglycan: Teichoic acid(occasionally)---NAG----NAM---(1)L-Ala---(2)D-Glu---(3)L-Lys---(4)D-Ala---[D-Ala][only present durign synth.] NAG---NAM is beta1,4 glycosidic linkage G+ is 100% crosslinked [4-->3], using indirect linkages ( w/ Gly)
Gram - Cell wall
(no teichoic) NAG--NAM--L-Ala---D-Glu---DAP---D-Ala -Direct link (not indirect) Has initial bilayer, peptidoglycan, then another bilayer. 2nd bilayer has LPS on it.
lipoteichoic acid vs teichoic acid
lipoteichoic acid interact with cell membrane. teichoic acid interact with cell wall. attach to peptidoglycan, stick out with a degree of variability, causing different immune response, etc.
1. Lipid A: embedded in membrane of outer leaflet (2nd membrane) -highly conserved, toxic 2. Core Structure: 8-10 sugars. usually unique (such as KPO) -link to outer world 3. O side chain: Repeating tetra or penta sugars -very hydrophillic, repeat between 3-40 times.
Low quantities: Local inflammation Moderate quantities: systemic response such as fever High quantities (such as in case of bacteremia): Septic shock [can lead to DIC]
DIC- disseminated intravascular coagulation
can be caused by high conc. of LPS, many little clots occur in the whole body, can cause multiple organ failure.
Want to see the other 17 Flashcards in Quiz 1?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!