1. Giving half the members of a group some purported psychological finding and the other half an opposite result is an easy way to demonstrate the impact of A) hindsight bias.B) illusory correlation.C) the double-blind procedure.D) the placebo effect. 2. Psychologists' personal values and goals A) can bias their observations and interpretations.B) lead them to avoid experiments involving human participants.C) have very little influence on the process of scientific observation.D) are carefully tested by means of observation and experimentation. 3. Our tendency to notice and remember instances in which a premonition of an unlikely phone call is actually followed by the call most clearly contributes to A) an illusory correlation.B) the placebo effect.C) replication.D) random assignment. 4. An extensive survey revealed that children with relatively high self-esteem tend to picture God as kind and loving, whereas those with lower self-esteem tend to perceive God as angry. The researchers concluded that the children's self-esteem had apparently influenced their views of God. This conclusion best illustrates the danger of A) exaggerating the extent to which others share our beliefs.B) assuming that association proves causation.C) generalizing from extreme examples.D) perceiving order in random events. 5. Plato's assumption that certain ideas are inborn is most directly relevant to the controversy over the relative contributions of A) nature and nurture.B) correlation and causation.C) conscious and unconscious thoughts.D) observation and introspection. 6. The group exposed to a newly created drug that is being tested in an experiment is called the ________ group. A) controlB) experimentalC) baselineD) standardized 7. In a test of the effects of sleep deprivation on problem-solving skills, research participants are allowed to sleep either 4 or 8 hours on each of three consecutive nights. This research is an example of A) naturalistic observation.B) a case study.C) an experiment.D) survey research. 8. The neuroscience perspective in psychology would be most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by A) unconscious conflicts.B) blood chemistry.C) environmental circumstances.D) subjective interpretations. 9. The first major issue that emerges in debates over experimenting on animals centers around the A) obligation to treat information about individual animals with confidentiality.B) need to obtain the informed consent of animals used in research.C) usefulness of studying biological processes in animals.D) ethics of placing the well-being of humans above that of animals. 10. A negative correlation between degree of wealth and likelihood of suffering from a psychological disorder would indicate that A) all of these statements are correct.B) psychological disorders usually prevent people from accumulating wealth.C) people who are poor are more likely to have a psychological disorder than are wealthy people.D) poverty makes people vulnerable to psychological disorders. 11. In a psychological experiment, the experimental factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the ________ variable. A) controlB) independentC) experimentalD) dependent 12. To learn about the TV-viewing habits of all the children attending Oakbridge School, Professor DeVries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the school's students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be a(n) A) population.B) independent variable.C) control condition.D) representative sample. 13. Suppose that people who watch a lot of violence on TV are also particularly likely to behave aggressively. This relationship would NOT necessarily indicate that watching violence influences aggressive behavior because A) random sequences often don't look random.B) association does not prove causation.C) events often seem more probable in hindsight.D) sampling extreme cases leads to false generalizations. 14. On a series of coin tosses, Oleg has correctly predicted heads or tails seven times in a row. In this instance, we can reasonably conclude that Oleg's predictive accuracy A) defies the laws of statistical probability.B) is inconsistent with the placebo effect.C) illustrates the phenomenon of illusory correlation.D) is a random and coincidental occurrence. 15. The American Psychological Association and British Psychological Society have developed ethical principles urging investigators to A) explain the research to the participants after the study has been completed.B) avoid the use of monetary incentives in recruiting people to participate in research.C) forewarn potential research participants of the exact hypotheses that the research will test.D) avoid the manipulation of independent variables in research involving human participants. 16. The case study is a research method in which A) an investigator manipulates one or more variables that might affect behavior.B) a representative sample of people are questioned regarding their opinions or behaviors.C) organisms are carefully observed in a laboratory environment.D) a single individual is studied in great depth. 17. By testing their predictions with scientific methods, psychologists are using a(n) A) psychodynamic perspective.B) independent variable.C) placebo effect.D) empirical approach. 18. In a psychological experiment, the factor that may be influenced by the manipulated experimental treatment is called the ________ variable. A) independentB) controlC) dependentD) experimental 19. Three key attitudes of scientific inquiry are A) curiosity, skepticism, and humility.B) ingenuity, practicality, and certainty.C) certainty, creativity, and curiosity.D) pride, enthusiasm, and ingenuity. 20. Wilhelm Wundt's laboratory work involved experimental studies of A) learning and memory.B) animal intelligence.C) reactions to sensory stimulation.D) personality development. 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