2. What were/are the root causes of terrorist aggression against the US?
Claiming that US had declared war against God, they called for the murder of any American, anywhere on earth, as the individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any country in which it is possible to do it
3. How had the US addressed the problem of terrorism before 9/11? Were mistakes made? Were there warning signs that, in retrospect, might have raised alarm?
1st WTC bombing in '93 signaled a new terrorist challenge.
although the bombing heightened awareness of a new terrorist danger, successful prosecutions contributed to widespread underestimation of the threat.
before 9/11 very little of the sprawling US law enforcement community was engaged in countering terrorism
What were some of the reasons why people did not survive the attacks? What were some reasons people did survive? What important changes occurred since the earlier attack on WTC? How prepared were the Port Authority and the Pentagon for such an attack?
it was aided greatly by changes made by the Port Authority in response to the '93 bombing and by the training of both Port Authority personnel and civilians after that time
the addition of glow strips to handrails and stairs were credited by some as the reason for their survival
general evacuation time dropped from 4 hrs in '93 to around 1 hr this time around
5. How does the report portray the preparedness and involvement of various US leaders in preventing attacks of 9/11/2001?
US didn't, before 9/11, adopt a clear strategic objective in the elimination of al Qaeda
gov. efforts to cope w/ terrorism were essentially the work of individual agencies.
Clinton spoke repeatedly about the threat of terrorism but little about Bin Ladin and al Qaeda.
as 2001 began, counterterrorism officials were receiving frequent but fragmentary reports about threats
7. How did the US respond to the attacks of 9/11? What actions did the US take and for what reasons?
emergency response to the attacks was necessarily improvised
actions taken place:
organizing federal emergency assistance
determining federal assistance
restoring civil aviation
reopening the financial markets
deciding when and how to return border and port security to more normal operations
What strategies does the report recommend for combating global terrorism in the future?
US would punish not just the perpetrators of the attacks, but also those who harbored them
State Department proposed an ultimatum: produce Bin Ladin and his deputies and shut down al Qaeda camps w/in 24-48 hrs or US will use necessary means to destroy the terrorist infrastructure