Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
1. Define sexual dysfunction.
sexual dysfunction: a disorder marked by a persistent inability to function normally in some area of the human sexual response cycle.
Describe a particular sexual dysfunction.
Sexual aversion disorder is one type of sexual dysfunction. This is when an individual finds sex distinctly unpleasant or repulsive. More common in women than men, this disorder can pertain to certain parts of sex, like penetration or all sexual desires, including touching and kissing.
Paraphilia- disorders characterized by recurrent and intense sexual urges, fantasies or behaviors involving nonhuman objects, children, nonconsenting adults, or experiences of suffering of humiliation.
Describe a particular paraphilia.
pedophilia is one type of paraphilia. This is when a person has repeated and intense sexual urges or fantasies about watching, touching or engaging in sexual acts with prepubescent children and may act on urges.
Voyeurism- a paraphilia in which a person has repeated and intense sexual desires to observe unsuspecting people in secret as they undress or to spy on couples having intercourse and may act upon desires.
Suggest two treatments or interventions that you think would be particularly effective for voyeurism.
Behavior therapy is commonly used to treat voyeurism. The voyeur must learn to control the impulse to watch non-consenting victims, and just as importantly to acquire more acceptable means of sexual gratification. Aversion therapy is another possible therapeutic technique relying on classical conditioning. The negative behavior is paired with an unpleasant stimulus in order to eradicate the undesirable behavior.
3. What is paraphilia?
-Paraphilia- disorders characterized by recurrent and intense sexual urges, fantasies or behaviors involving nonhuman objects, children, nonconsenting adults, or experiences of suffering of humiliation.
Describe two paraphilias.
-Voyeurism- a paraphilia in which a person has repeated and intense sexual desires to observe unsuspecting people in secret as they undress or to spy on couples. having intercourse and may act upon desires.
-Another is Pedophilia, which is when a person has repeated and intense sexual urges or fantasies about watching, touching or engaging in sexual acts with prepubescent children and may act on urges.
-pedophilia- repeated and intense sexual urges/ fantasies about watching, touching, or engaging in sexual acts with prepubescent children.
What comorbid disorder is often associated with pedophilia?
-studies have found that most men with this disorder also display at least one additional psychological disorder, such as an anxiety or mood disorder, substance-related disorder, another paraphilia, or personality disorder.
How does it differ from other paraphilias?
Pedophilia is different from other paraphilic behaviours in that it can be diagnosed (and socially stigmatized) even if the urges and desires have not been acted upon.
Discuss a social issue with the way pedophilia is defined.
Assessment and conceptualization of the problem: A medical examination and interview of “sex history” is given.Mutual responsibility: Both partners in a sexual relationship share the problem. Both are involved in the therapy.
7. Describe at least two findings that suggest a genetic component to schizophrenia.
-Gottesman and Sheilds’ (1982) review of numerous studies [schizo lec] suggests that children with parents who have SCZ have a morbid risk concordance rate of 46.3% and between twins a 50% rate.
Describe the dopamine hypothesis for schizophrenia, and describe at least two findings that support the dopamine hypothesis.
-dopamine hypothesis- certain neurons that use neurotransmitter dopamine fire too often and transmit too many messages, thus producing symptoms. People suffering from Parkinson’s disease that take too much L-dopa, a medication that increases dopamine levels, may develop symptoms similar to schizophrenia. Additionally, high doses of amphetamines, which also increase dopamine levels, may cause amphetamine psychosis, a syndrome similar to schizophrenia.
Describe two findings that suggest brain abnormalities in schizophrenia.
-brain abnormalities: CAT and MRI scans show that people with schizophrenia have enlarged ventricles that are, on average, 15% larger than normal ventricles. Other studies have shown that people with schizophrenia are more likely to have small temporal and frontal lobes, less cortical gray matter, and possibly abnormal blood flow. These abnormalities may be the cause of not only schizophrenic symptoms but also the previously mentioned enlarged ventricles.
Describe viral/gestational roots to schizophrenia.
• people with schizophrenia are more likely to have been born in late winter or early spring
• pregnant women are more likely to have children who eventually develop SCZ if during the early or middle trimester of their gestation the mothers
• have herpes, or
• get viral influenza or strep throat, meningitis, or other viruses
• frontal lobe damage in childhood
• some people with early onset of HIV develop schizophrenia-like symptoms in advanced stages of AIDS
How might all these different findings be integrated in to one explanation – and what is that explanation in your own words?
8. What is mechanism #4 (receptor blockade) (describe three aspects and use a drawing if you wish)?
Mechanism #4 is receptor blockade. It reduces the sensitivity of the post-synaptic cell by blocking receptor sites or stopping metabolism. Excess dopamine is not received to the post-synaptic cell or is metabolized before affecting the cell.
How does it alleviate the symptoms of schizophrenia?
It reduces active/positive symptoms and works best for people with paranoid schizophrenia.
Antipsychotic drugs reduce psychotic symptoms at least in part by blocking excessive activity of Dopamine, particularly in the brain’s D-2 receptors. Effective in 65% of patients diagnosed with scz. Reduce positive symptome more completely or more quickly than negative symptoms. Antipsychotics are generally meant to regulate dopamine in the frontal lobe, but often affect neurotransmission of dopamine in areas throughout the brain.
What are at least two side effects of anti-psychotic medications?
How can the side effects be controlled?
once recognized drug use is discontinued and each symptom is treated medically, may be given dopamine enhancing drugs.
delusions: strange false belief held despite evidence to the contrary. (delusions of persecution, reference, grandeur, command)
disorganized thinking and speech: illogical thought and speech. May include formal thought disorders, and loose association or derailment, which are rapid thought shifts from one topic to another.
heightened perceptions and hallucinations:
inappropriate affect: emotions unsuited to situation
11. Define positive symptoms and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
- Positive symptoms of schizophrenia are those symptoms that involve an excess of normal bodily functions.
- Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are those symptoms that involve a decrease in normal bodily functions.
State three or more disorders that it may include.
Borderline Personality Disorder
Deinstitutionalization is the process of replacing long-stay psychiatric hospitals with less isolated community mental health services for those diagnosed with mental disorder or developmental disability.
criticisms of public mental hospitals, incorporation of mind-altering drugs in treatment, support from President Kennedy for federal policy changes in the treatment for those with mental illnesses, shift to community based care, change in public opinion of those with mental disabilities, and state's desire to reduce cost of mental hospitals
Describe outcomes of deinstitutionalization.
Outcomes: prison or homeless on the streets
Rapid thoughts, trembling lips, flat affect, paranoia, feels overwhelmed with stimulation, thinks he can read other people’s minds, thought George Bush was trying to kill him and now believes George Bush is dead, also felt he was at the center of some large world changing event
What kind of schizophrenia does Steven seem to suffer from?
List his positive symptoms, and his negative symptoms.
-neurodevelopmental theory- argues that SCZ has childhood origins that manifest later on in life. Brain development (particularly in adolescence) both creates and adapts to these difficulties; many problems abate after the SCZ crisis of early adulthood thus, SCZ develops across the lifespan
-neurodegeneration theory: first prominent symptoms begin in early adulthood, and appear to be a degeneration of previously higher functioning
-Dx: Borderline Personality Disorder
Describe Karen’s most dangerous symptoms and how they are manifested in at least two living contexts.
-repeatedly engaging in frantic efforts to avoid abandonment
-exhibit pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relations
-recurrent suicidal behavior and self-mutilation (i.e., cutting)
-chronic feelings of emptiness
-display inappropriate anger
21. Describe at least three defining characteristics of personality disorders in general.
-the pattern is:
-the inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of contexts
-leads to distress or impairment
-stable and of long duration
Describe the central features of the three clusters of personality disorders. CLUSTER A odd or eccentric of behavior
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!