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In which case did the supreme court say that “fighting words” could be limited by the government?
Chaplinksy V. New Hampshire (1942)
In which case does the Supreme court rule that states cannot abridge free speech, thus incorporating freedom of speech?
Gitlow V. New York
The constitutional justification for incorporation of the bill of rights comes from the:
Due process clause of the 14th Amendment
The Feminine Mystique
In the 1970s Daniel Ellsberg stole classified documents known as ________ and gave them to national newspapers.
The pentagon papers
The ________ has been construed to provide protection for the individual from the actions of a repressive state government.
A state establishes a school voucher program where students or parents can choose to give the voucher money to either secular or religious schools. The Supreme Court is likely to rule this state program
Constitutional, because the program does not favor religious schools over nonreligious schools when it is the student or parent making the choice
Although prosecutors dropped charges against Michael Hardwick, his case came before the Supreme Court because
Prohibits government from sponsoring or supporting religious activity
Most protections outlined in the Bill of Rights now apply to the states as a result of the supreme court’s interpretation of the __________
The Supreme Court case Lawrence v. Texas overturned the previous decision of
Bowers v. Hardwick
In 2007, the supreme court ________ a federal law banning partial-birth abortion.
A Seventh-Day Adventist declined a job that required him to work on a Saturday, which is the holy day for Seventh-Day Adventists. Because he declined a job, the federal government denied him federal unemployment benefits. The Supreme Court would rule this decision by the government was
The most important obstacle to the adoption of the Constitution by the states was
It did not contain a bill of rights
If you were to identify a branch of government that championed the rights of blacks in the immediate aftermath of the Civil War, it would be
The legislative Branch
“with all deliberate speed.”
Affirmative action programs seek to
Achieve not just equality of opportunity but also equality of outcome.
Jefferson’s view that women should be excluded from mixing in men’s business to prevent harm to women’s morals is an example of
In Grove City College v. Bell, the supreme Court
frustrated enforcement of civil right laws.
Which provision prevented the collection of money from individuals (primarily black Americans) in order to be eligible to vote in primary and general elections?
The Twenty-fourth Amendment
The civil rights guarantee of “equal protection of the laws” is located in
The fourteenth Amendment
Equality of Opportunity
Recently, Native American tribes have begun ambitious social and educational programs for their members largely because of
legalized gambling operation proceeds
An unstated liberty that is on the fringe or in the shadow of a more explicitly stated right is called a(n)
In which case does the Supreme Court rule that the Bill of Rights only applies to actions of the federal government, but not the state government?
Barron v. Baltimore
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989)
the proximity and degree of harm speech may provoke must be considered by the Court.
In the Lemon v. Kurtzman decision, the Supreme Court proposed a test for determining the constitutionality of government programs and laws; this test included
which law or program cannot be funded with taxpayer money.
In Griswold v. Connecticut, the Court struck down a state law
that made the use of birth control devices a crime.
Abigail Fisher brought her lawsuit against the University of Texas arguing that the inclusion of race in university admissions violates
the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
the state to introduce evidence at trial if that evidence was seized on the basis of a mistakenly issued search warrant.
The initial Bill of Rights
imposed limits on the national government but not on the state governments
The exclusionary rule holds that
evidence obtained from an illegal search and seizure cannot be used in a trial.
The disabled rights movement stems from
disabled World War II veterans returning home to a country insensitive to their needs.
A purchasing or contracting provision that reserves a certain percentage of funds for minority-owned contractors is best defined as
The national government switched policies towards Native Americans at the beginning of the twentieth century by
What women’s rights activist first persuaded a U. S. California senator to introduce a constitutional amendment calling for the right of women to vote?
Susan B Anthony
Which of the following tactics were used by white southerners to keep blacks from the polls in the years after the Civil War?
All of the Above are true
In 2003, the Supreme Court revisited the use of affirmative action by the University of Michigan and ruled that
a school’s interest in diversity permitted the use of race as one factor in university admissions, as long as all applicants were judged individually on their merits.
In 1873, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld an Illinois law that prohibited women from
In 2007, the U.S. Supreme Court made it more difficult for plaintiffs to bring lawsuits over pay discrimination based on Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act by ruling
that plaintiffs must file a complaint within 180 days of pay setting.
For Native Americans, the 1970s and 1980s brought
the return of some land and financial settlements for other losses
The “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” policy was signed into law by President _______.
Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969)
The exclusionary rule is stated specifically in the Bill of Rights.
Griswold v. Connecticut, which challenged a Connecticut statute that declared the use of birth control devices a crime, established the principle that
The Bill of Rights as a whole creates a zone of personal privacy or autonomy
Charles Schenck, the defendant in Schenck v. United States, was charged with
Disrupting military recruitment by distributing leaflets claiming that the draft was unconstitutional
The case Gideon v. Wainwright affirmed that the state must
Provide you with legal counsel
A public official
Which of the following statements concerning the Supreme Court, religious observance, and public schools is correct?
Public schools must open their doors to after-school religious activities on the same basis as the other after-school programs.
Ruled that prior restraint almost always places an unacceptable burden on a free press.
The Supreme Court ruled against efforts to apply the 14th amendment to women
The Americans with Disabilities Act
Includes deliberately vague language as to what constitutes a disability
Civil disobedience is
The willful but nonviolent breach of “unjust” laws.
Homer Plessy attempted to challenge Louisiana’s racial segregation policies by
Refusing to move from a “whites-only” Louisiana car.
Native Americans did not receive U.S. citizenship until
Options A and B are true
As of 2012, Hispanics or Latinos constitute about ______ percent of the population and _____ percent of Congress
In Mapp v. Ohio, a case that involved the conviction of a woman for possession of obscene material found during an illegal search for a fugitive, the Supreme Court
extended the federal exclusionary rule to state courts
The Supreme Court declared prayer in public schools unconstitutional in
Engel v. Vitale
The USA-PATRIOT Act can be understood as a conflict between
Freedom and order
The phrase “wall of separation between church and state” originated with
In a series of cases involving foreign detainees held in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, the Supreme Court has ruled that
Prisoners at Guantánamo have a right to challenge their detentions in the federal courts.
The first law passed by Congress that attempted to guarantee blacks equal access to public accommodations (parks, theaters, and the like) was passed in the Civil Rights Act of
Preferential policies are
Options A and C are true
Options A and B are true.
Which of the following statements best described the legal status of Native Americans before they became U.S. citizens?
They were considered members of tribal nations whose relations with the United States were based on treaties.
The __________ provides that “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude…shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”
Recent new justices on the Supreme Court and decisions such as Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 suggest
the court has moved in a decidedly more conservative direction and appears willing to strike down many affirmative action programs
Which case upholds an Oregon law that allows doctors to prescribe drugs to terminally ill patients?
Powers and privileges guaranteed to the individual and protected against arbitrary removal at the hands of the government or other individuals are best defined as
The case Roe v. Wade
Upheld the right of women to have abortions
In 2010, the supreme court in McDonald v. Chicago, ruled in a 5-4 decision that an individual’s right to bear arms
Cannot be prohibited by state or local government
The second Amendment of the Constitution refers to
The right to bear arms
Which president signed the Defense of Marriage Act, a law that defined marriage as a union between people of opposite sexes?
An American Citizen’s ability to drive a car only with the possession of a valid license may be best described as a
equality of outcome
Which of the following clauses is not located within the Fourteenth Amendment?
The emancipation clause
People who feel that they were unfairly denied their right to admission, employment, or promotion because an affirmative action program placed someone of another race or sex ahead of them claim
The Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act, a 2010 Arizona law targeting illegal immigrants,
Options A, B, and C are true
Why did the Equal Rights Amendment fail?
Options A, B, and C are true
Racial segregation that is not the result of government action (for example resulting from residential patterns) is called __________ segregation.
In 2012, a student who protested the presence of a prayer on her school auditorium wall was
opposed by her local school board, but supported by a federal judge
Almost all of the Provisions
In Palko v. Connecticut, the Supreme Court ruled that Frank Palko’s Fifth Amendment protection against double jeopardy was not a(n) _________ right the state of Connecticut had to follow
The major criticism of the dissenting justices in Roe v. Wade was that
the other justices were writing their own policy preferences into law
Justice Sandra Day O’Connor contributed to the legal debate over abortion by maintaining that state abortion restrictions are permissible provided they do not create
an undue burden
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 provided for all of the following except
elimination of the poll tax as a requirement for voting
What is the major rationale for affirmative action?
Special consideration for racial minorities is necessary to overcome the effects of centuries of racial discrimination
Which amendment to the Constitution guaranteed women the right to vote?
Nineteenth Amendment in 1920
In Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg County Schools, the Supreme Court ruled
that lower federal courts order the busing of children to ensure school desegregation
Plessy v. Ferguson, which involved segregated public accommodations, is noteworthy because it
endorsed the separate-but-equal doctrine
__________ explained why aggressive affirmative action was necessary by saying, “You do not take a person who for years has been hobbled by chains, liberate him, bring him up to the starting line of a race, and then say, ‘You are free to compete with all the others,’ and still justly believe that you have been completely fair.”
The safeguards embodied in the _______ to the Constitution specify how government must behave in criminal proceedings
Options A, B, and C are true
In its 2011 decision Snyder v. Phelps, the Supreme Court affirmed the right of the Westboro Baptist Church to
Picket funerals to communicate their belief that God punishes the military for tolerating homosexuality
The significance of the Ninth Amendment remained unexplored until the case of
Griswold v. Connecticut
In the years after the Civil War, the supreme Court ruled that government could prohibit
Only governmental acts that discriminated on the basis of race
One of the key founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was
W.E.B. Du Bois
In 2003, the Supreme Court considered racial preference policies ________ in Michigan
Options A and D are true
What was the first piece of legislation President Obama signed after becoming president that undid the 2007 Supreme Court decision making it more difficult for plaintiffs to bring lawsuits over pay discrimination?
The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act
The strike and boycott led by Cesar Chavez had the effect of
attaining somewhat better pay, housing, and working conditions for farm workers
The first major victory of Martin Luther King, Jr. in the civil rights movement was
Helping coordinate the Montgomery bus boycott
The Stonewall Riots
Section 215 of the USA-PATRIOT Act allows the government to
search private records without first obtaining a warrant
Students demonstrating against the war in Iraq by wearing black armbands as a symbolic protest would probably be protected under which case ruling?
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Co. School District
In an early NAACP challenge to segregation, Heman Sweatt sued the state of Texas after it
rented a few rooms in an office building and hired two black lawyers and called this its state law school for African-Americans
The statements that police are required to make to a person before that person may be subjected to in-custody questioning are known as
In the late 1910s and early 1920s, two supreme court justices began writing passionate dissenting opinions about the importance of defending unpopular viewpoints under the First Amendment. They were
Oliver Wendell Holmes and Louis D. Braneis
The amendment permitting black American men to vote is the
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