a. DNA profile b. DNA sequence c. Genetic catalog d. RNA profile e. DNA coding
In the human genome, only 1.5% of the DNA is used to encode for ______ that are important in directing protein synthesis.
a. Genes b. Transposons c. DNA repeats d. Telomeres e. Introns
In the human genome, most genes are divided into discrete sequences known as _______.
a. Exons b. Introns c. Neutrons d. Protons e. Positrons
The newly synthesized RNA molecule must go through a step in the cell nucleus known as RNA processing to remove the
a. Introns b. Exons c. Transformers d. Telomeres e. Transposons
DNA in humans exists as a ______________.
a. Single molecule b. Double parallel molecule c. Double helix d. Triple helix e. Quadruple helix
DNA replication is known as _______________.
a. Semi-conservative replication b. Conservative replication c. Dispersive replication d. Helical replication e. Novel replication
The DNA replication error known as a frameshift mutation is due to alteration of the reading frame by
a. Base substitution b. Base insertion or deletion c. Base alteration d. DNA breakage e. Failure in DNA repair
Most neutral mutations are likely to involve ________________.
a. Frameshift mutation b. Conservative base substitution c. Non conservative base substitution d. Nonsense mutation e. Missense mutation
Induced mutation is generally defined by an increase in mutation rate by ___________ fold.
a. 10 b. 100 c. 1,000 d. 10,000 e. 100,000
Genetic disorders are the result of _____________.
a. Gametic mutation b. Environmental pollution c. Somatic mutation d. Nutritional deprivation e. Psychological stress
In a gain-of-function mutation such as Huntington’s disease, the mutated allele acts as a _____________.
a. Dominant allele b. Recessive allele c. Neutral allele d. Positive allele e. Negative allele
Proportion of individuals carries a particular allele that also express an associated trait is known as _______________.
a. Penetrance b. Genotype c. Phenotype d. Polymorphism e. Gene frequency
Characteristics of polygenic disorders include _____________.
a. Late onset b. Predictable inheritance pattern c. Rare to extremely rare d. Affect important metabolic steps e. All of the above
Most genes have many different alleles, which are the results of __________.
a. Random mutation b. Gene duplication c. Transcription errors d. Translational modifications e. Site-specific mutation
Frequencies of alleles change with time, because ____________.
a. Alleles with the highest fitness become dominant b. Alleles with high fitness become common c. Alleles with low fitness become less common d. Alleles with very low fitness completely disappear e. All of the above
The improved biological fitness of an individual due to genetic differences of its parents is known as _____________.
a. Hybrid vigor b. Inbreeding depression c. Outbreeding depression d. Outbreeding advantage e. Hybrid enhancement
Human skin color is a result from the production of the pigment _________ by melanocytes.
a. Melanin b. Melatonin c. Hemoglobin d. Myoglobin e. Carotene
The change in allele frequency due to human intervention in breeding practice is known as ____________.
a. Natural selection b. Sexual selection c. Artificial selection d. Allele expression e. Gene selection
The appearance and disappearance of biological traits that are neutral under certain environmental condition is known as ___________.
a. Genetic drift b. Natural selection c. Sexual selection d. All of the above e. None of above
Allele frequency of neutral genotypes can be enhanced in two reproductively isolated populations through ________________.
A. Genetic drift B. Natural selection C. Sexual selection D. All of the above E. None of above
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