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Students often study differently for different kinds of classroom assessments
Which one of the following best describes how neurons transmit messages to one another?
By sending chemical substances across a tiny gap between them
According to the textbook, which one of the following conclusions is most warranted from research on brain development?
Classroom experiences can affect students’ cognitive development throughout the elementary and secondary school years.
Most developmental theorists agree that:
Developmental milestones appear in a consistent sequence for most children.
Which one of the following statements reflects what developmentalists mean by the term maturation?
Developmental changes that are controlled largely by heredity
Which one of the following is the best example of qualitative research?
Interviewing middle school students about cliques at their school
Which one of the following teaching practices is definitely an example of evidence-based practice?
A fourth-grade teacher uses a reading program that research has shown to be effective for fourth graders.
Experimental research requires which one of the following?
Manipulating an aspect of the environment
Which one of the following conclusions could be drawn from a descriptive study?
Approximately 80% of the students at Southside High School are planning to go to college.
Which one of the following statements best describes Piaget’s view of how children acquire knowledge about the world?
Children actively construct their own view of the world from their experiences with the environment.
Given what we know about the development of sense of self, three of the following are likely scenarios. Which scenario is not likely to occur?
Mike vacillates between thinking of himself as being very smart and as being extremely stupid.
Authoritative parents can best be characterized as having which type of relationship with their children?
High expectations, loving support, and shared decision making
Which one of the following best describes Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development?
A series of stages, each of which has a unique developmental task to be addressed
Which one of the following most accurately describes the general concept of temperament?
An inherited predisposition to interact with one’s environment in certain ways
Which one of the following best describes socialization as developmental psychologists use the term?
Molding children’s behavior to enable effective functioning within their culture
Three of the teachers below are using strategies appropriate for a culturally diverse classroom. With the textbook’s discussion of student diversity in mind, identify the teacher who is probably not promoting the classroom success of some of her students.
Ms. Boynton uses competitive activities to get all students motivated to do their best.
Which one of the following students best fits the pattern associated with being at risk?
Evan is doing poorly in all of his classes because of repeated absenteeism and failure to turn in assignments.
Ten-year-old Svana has recently immigrated from Iceland to the United States. If we say that Svana is undergoing acculturation, we mean that she is:
adopting some American behaviors and attitudes.
When considering students’ cultural and ethnic backgrounds, it is important to keep in mind that:
some students may simultaneously be active participants in two or more cultural groups.
Three of the following alternatives describe reasons why, for cultural reasons, children may be relatively quiet in class. Which alternative is false?
In some cultures, children rarely hear spoken language until age 3 or 4.
Stereotype threat can best be viewed as:
an awareness of a negative stereotype about one's group and an accompanying feeling that one's low performance would confirm the stereotype.
Knowledge about group differences enables us to:
form tentative hypotheses about instructional strategies that might be effective for different students.
Three of the following are likely to give you reasonable clues about a student’s cultural background and/or ethnic group membership. Which one is probablyleast dependable as an indicator of a student’s cultural background and ethnicity?
The color of a student’s skin
Three of the following are differences that teachers may find among children from some cultural backgrounds. Which behavior is probably not the result of a student’s cultural background per se?
Some students may be accustomed to “talking back” to authority figures when they disagree.
Which one of the following teaching strategies best reflects the textbook’s definition of multicultural education?
Considering the perspectives of different cultural groups regularly throughout the school year
In which one of the following ways are students with special needs different from their classmates?
Students with special needs are students who cannot reach their full potential in a general education classroom unless special instructional modifications are made.
The practice of inclusion involves which one of the following?
Educating all students, including those with special needs, in the general education classroom.
Three of the following children have been diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Which one is least likely to have ADHD?
Ben’s favorite times of day are recess and gym because he enjoys physical activity. It’s hard for him to sit still on rainy afternoons when he hasn’t had a chance to burn off some energy, but he usually gets his assignments done.
Only one of the following strategies is consistent with the textbook’s recommendations for helping students with cognitive or academic difficulties succeed in the classroom. Which one is consistent?
Spend time clarifying instructions and expectations, and check to make sure students know what they are supposed to do.
Different cultural groups have different views about what intelligence includes. Which view are you least likely to encounter in your discussions with people from diverse cultures.
Intelligence partly involves how much physical strength one has.
Which one of the following statements most accurately describes the relationship between IQ scores and classroom performance?
On average, students with higher IQ scores do better in school than students with lower IQ scores.
What is the primary purpose of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)?
It guarantees an education to students with cognitive, emotional and physical disabilities and establishes educational policies for that purpose.
Which one of the following is a correct interpretation of a high school student’s IQ score of 115?
The student has performed better on an intelligence test than the majority of students of the same age.
Which one of the following is a true statement about IQ scores?
They are derived from comparisons with the test performance of others.
“A child’s ability to behave intelligently may vary considerably depending on the particular context, skills, and cognitive processes required by a given task.” This statement is consistent with three of the following conceptualizations of intelligence. With which one is it least consistent?
Cattell’s concept of fluid intelligence
Which one of the following students definitely has a meaningful learning set?
Danny is trying to figure out the logic underlying the process of long division.
Three of the following assumptions underlie cognitive psychology’s perspective of learning. Which one does not?
People learn in ways that are very similar to how other species learn.
As human beings, we encounter many stimuli at any one time. Which one of the following most accurately reflects cognitive psychologists’ perspective about how we respond to all these stimuli?
We must select the things we think are most important to learn and remember, and ignore the rest.
Which one of the following statements best describes the three-component model of memory presented in the textbook and the notes?
All information that enters long-term memory must first pass through the sensory register and working memory.
Which one of the following examples illustrates conceptual change?
Charlotte used to think that fire was an actual substance, but now she knows it’s a chemical change.
Which one of the following best reflects use of the sensory register component of memory?
You can remember something you heard for a second or two even though you weren’t paying attention.
Learning theorists often emphasize the importance of attention in the learning process.
From the perspective of the three-component model of memory, why is attention so important?
moves information from the sensory register into working memory.
The __________ is a star-shaped brain cell involved in learning and memory.
When cognitive psychologists talk about the process of “putting” things in memory, they often use the term:
Each of the teachers below has students with misconceptions about the material they are studying. Three of the teachers are using strategies that should help their students correct these misconceptions. Which teacher is not using an effective strategy for changing misconceptions?
Ms. Caro reminds her students that she will be testing them on the material they are studying.
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