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Autobiographical memory research shows that a person's brain is more extensively activated when viewing photos
a. the person has seen before. b. of familiar places. c. they took themselves. d. the person has never seen before.
For most adults over age 40, the reminiscence bump describes enhanced memory for
a. childhood and adolescence. b. adolescence and early adulthood. c. early adulthood and middle age. d. childhood and middle age.
Asking people to recall the most influential events that happened during their college careers show that ____ in people's lives appear to be particularly memorable.
a. peer-group experiences b. academic challenges c. the sophomore year d. transition points
The observation that older adults often become nostalgic for the "good old days" reflects the self-image hypothesis, which states that
a. life in a society gets more complicated and difficult as generations pass. b. memory for life events is enhanced during the time we assume our life identities. c. people tend to remember more of the positive events in their lives than negative ones. d. our memories change as we live longer and have more "lifetime periods" to draw events from.
Schrauf and Rubin’s "two groups of immigrants" study found that the reminiscence bump coincided with periods of rapid change, occurring at a normal age for people emigrating early in life but shifting to 15 years later for those who emigrated later. These results support the
a. cognitive hypothesis. b. self-image hypothesis. c. narrative rehearsal hypothesis. d. autobiographical hypothesis.
Extrapolating from the cultural life script hypothesis, which of the following events would be easiest to recall?
a. Retiring from work at age 40 b. Marrying at age 60 c. Graduating from college at age 22 d. Having a child at age 45
Flashbulb memory is best represented by which of the following statements?
a. It is vivid memory for emotional events. b. It is vivid, highly accurate memory for the circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event. c. It is memory for the circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event that remains especially vivid but not necessarily accurate over time. d. It is vivid, highly accurate memory for emotional events.
Your text argues that the proper procedure for measuring the accuracy of flashbulb memories is
a. source monitoring. b. scripting. c. repeated recall. d. pre-cueing.
A lesson to be learned from the research on flashbulb memories is that
a. rehearsal cannot account for them. b. people’s confidence in a memory predicts its accuracy (high confidence = high accuracy). c. extreme vividness of a memory does not mean it is accurate. d. they are permanent and resist forgetting.
Experiments that argue against a special flashbulb memory mechanism find that as time increases since the occurrence of the flashbulb event, participants
a. remember more details about the event. b. make more errors in their recollections. c. report less confidence about their recollections. d. report less vivid recollections of the event.
Your text describes two experiments that measured people’s memory for what they were doing when they heard about 9/11. a. believed that their memories for the attack remained accurate over a 52-week period. b. displayed memory for this flashbulb event that declined with time. c. reported less vivid memories of 9/11 as time passed. d. both believed their memories for the attack were accurate over a 52-week period and displayed memory for the flashbulb event that declined with time.
The idea that we remember life events better because we encounter the information over and over in what we read, see on TV, and talk about with other people is called the
a. narrative rehearsal hypothesis. b. cognitive hypothesis. c. life-narrative hypothesis. d. reminiscence hypothesis.
According to the _____ approach to memory, what people report as memories is based on what actually happened plus additional factors such as other knowledge, experiences, and expectations.
a. event-specific b. source c. constructive d. misinformation
The "telephone game" is often played by children. One child creates a story and whispers it to a second child, who does the same to a third child, and so on. When the last child recites the story to the group, his or her reproduction of the story is generally shorter than the original and contains many omissions and inaccuracies. This game shows how memory is a ______ process.
a. life-narrative b. narrative-rehearsal c. consequentiality based d. constructive
In the "War of the Ghosts" experiment, participants’ reproductions contained inaccuracies based on
a. narrative rehearsal. b. source misattributions. c. cultural expectations. d. shallow processing.
Bartlett’s experiment in which English participants were asked to recall the "War of the Ghosts" story that was taken from the French Indian culture illustrated the
a. misinformation effect. b. familiarity effect. c. constructive nature of memory. d. reminiscence bump.
The repeated reproduction technique used in memory studies involves
a. the same participants remembering some information at longer and longer intervals after learning the information.
Wei has allergy symptoms.While he was in the specialist’s waiting area, he read a magazine where he saw three ads for an allergy medicine called SneezeLess. A week later, in a drug store, Wei says to his brother, "My doctor says SneezeLess works great. I’ll buy that one." Wei and his doctor never discussed SneezeLess. Wei has fallen victim to which of the following errors?
a. MPI b. Recovered memory c. Schema confusion d. Source monitoring
Unconscious plagiarism of the work of others is known as
a. narrative rehearsal. b. cryptomnesia. c. repeated reproduction. d. repeated recall.
Jacoby’s experiment, in which participants made judgments about whether they had previously seen the names of famous and non-famous people, found that inaccurate memories based on source misattributions occurred after a delay of
a. one week. b. 24 hours. c. one hour. d. one month.
The experiment for which people were asked to make fame judgments for both famous and non-famous names (and for which Sebastian Weissdorf was one of the names to be remembered) illustrated the effect of _____ on memory.
a. repeated rehearsal of distinctive names b. source misattributions c. encoding specificity d. schemas
____ occurs when reading a sentence leads a person to expect something that is not explicitly stated or necessarily implied by the sentence.
a. Observer perspective b. Pragmatic inference c. Prospective memory d. Automatic narrative
The experiment in which participants first read sentences about John fixing a birdhouse and were then asked to identify sentences they had seen before, illustrated that memory
a. is better for vivid descriptions. b. is like a tape recording. c. depends on the participant’s mood. d. involves making inferences.
Arkes and Freedman’s "baseball game" experiment asked participants to whether the following sentence was in a passage they had read about events in a game: "The batter was safe at first." a. omissions of information that was presented. b. participants who did not understand baseball and assumed more information was presented than actually was. c. creations from inferences based on baseball knowledge. d. confusions about presented information when it was ambiguous.
Your friend has been sick for several days, so you go over to her home to make her some chicken soup. Searching for a spoon, you first reach in a top drawer beside the dishwasher. Then, you turn to the big cupboard beside the stove to search for a pan. In your search, you have relied on a kitchen
a. source memory. b. episodic memory. c. schema. d. scan technique.
In the experiment in which participants sat in an office and then were asked to remember what they saw in the office, participants "remembered" some things, like books, that weren’t actually there. This experiment illustrates the effect of _____ on memory.
a. schemas b. scripts c. confabulation d. bias
A script is a type of schema that also includes knowledge of
a. a sequence of actions. b. what is involved in a particular experience. c. information stored in both semantic and episodic memory. d. items appropriate to a particular setting.
Jackie went to the grocery store. fter finding what she needed, she stood in a check-out line. Then, the cashier put her items in a plastic bag, and soon after, Jackie left the store. As readers of this event, we understand that Jackie paid for the groceries, even though it wasn’t mentioned, because we are relying on a grocery store _____ that is stored in _______ long-term memory.
a. narrative; semantic b. script; semantic c. narrative; episodic d. script; episodic
In the "sleep list" false memory experiment, false memory occurs because of
a. constructive memory processes. b. verbatim recall. c. the effect of scripts. d. none of these
The sleep list experiment, in which many people misremember the word "sleep" as being part of a list of words, is an example of
a. a repeated recall error. b. a disadvantage of memory's constructive nature. c. misleading postevent information's influence on memory. d. retroactive interference.
Shereshevskiiwhose virtually limitless word-for-wordmemory is that having memory like a video recorder: a. is an advantage because it eliminates "selective" recording (remembering some events and forgetting others), which provides no useful service to humans. b. is largely a blessing because no event would be erased c. helped him draw powerful inferences and intelligent conclusions from his vast knowledge base. d.none of these
d.none of these
The memory-trace replacement hypothesis states that themisinformation effect occurs because: a.MPI impairs or replaces memories formedduring the original experiencing of an event. b. the original memory for an event decaysover time, leaving room for MPI to infiltrate the memory later. c. MPI cues the rememberer that an error in memory is occurring. d. MPI fills in the gaps in the original memory where it lacked detail.
a.MPI impairs or replaces memories formed during the original experiencing of an event.
Results showed that the misinformation effect was greatestwhen MPI presentation was: a. auditory from a female speaker. b.auditory, regardless of the gender of the speaker.c. auditory from a male speaker. d.visual.
Stany and Johnson's "weapons focus" experiment,investigating memory for crime scenes, found that: a. the threat of a weaponcauses people to focus their attention away from the weapon itself.b.thepresence of a weapon has no effect on memory for the event.c.the presence of aweapon enhances memory for all parts of the event.d.the presence of a weaponhinders memory for other parts of the event.
d.A sequentiallineup increases the chance that the witness compares each person to the memory of the event.
1. Yourtext’s discussion of false memories leads to the conclusion that false memories
a. Area natural consequence of a largely adaptive memory system
b. Occurfor detail but not for entire events
c. Occurin laboratory settings but do not occur in real-world circumstances
d. Donot occur for all people but rather are experienced by suggestible orinattentive people.
1. Themisinformation effect occurs when a person’s memory for an event is modified bymisleading information presented
a. Beforethe event
b. Duringthe event
c. Afterthe event
d. Allof the above
Yourtext’s discussion of instances when people report a memory of being abused orwitness to abuse after years of having no memory for these events highlightsthe importance of considering: a. How visualization exercises during therapy may lead to false memories b. That there is no test that can accurately discriminate between true and false memories c. The specific situation under which a person recalls the past d. All of the above
d. All of the above
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