Jennifer Bishop September 21, 2009 Gen Bus 300 Quiz 1 Study Guide * * * * * * * * * * * Chapter 1: factors affecting business people in the workplace: Heightened Global Competition Telecommunication/transportation have globalized companies must communicate with people w/ different customs/lifestyles must develop new skills/attitudes to be successful in global markets Cultural knowledge/sensitivity Flexibility Patience Flattened Management Hierarchies ?flattening? ? fewer managers separate decision-makers from workers Flat organizations ? decision makers can react quicker to market changes since communication lines are shorter Silos ? slice company vertically into separate divisions for marketing, operations, production, human resources (ineffective) everyone is writer and communicator Expanded Team-Based Management Employees more involved in decision making Employees must work together and share information Companies don?t waste time hiring communication coaches to teach employees how to negotiate/collaborate Better to hire employees who already have these skills Electronic communication changes the way we communicate Communicate by email, fax, cell, laptops, etc. Meetings through teleconference/videoconference social software blogs/wikis make it easier to communicate fast sophisticated presentation software New Work Environments Open offices as opposed to individual offices/cubicles Flexibility ? work at home or on the road instead of in office More employees work separately, so communication is very important Writing skills constantly on display Increasingly Diverse Workforce Hispanics, African Americans and Asians more prominent There will be more older workers also Businesses must create environments that value/accept all people Benefits of a diverse environment: 1) diverse staff can read trends/respond to diverse customer base better 2) teams of people w/ various experience can create products demanded 3) customers want companies that respect their values Obstacles that create misunderstanding: Bypassing: when people miss each other with their meanings Attaching different meanings to words, creating miscommunication Different Frames of Reference: seeing/feeling differently -different frames of reference We have different biases/expectations Be alert to your own/others? frames of reference Lack of Language Skill need good vocabulary, good punctuation/grammar and written/oral skills Distractions Emotional interference, physical distractions, digital interruptions Remain objective to reduce interruptions Focus on what is important and shut out everything else Tips for overcoming communication barriers: Anticipate problems in encoding, transmitting, decoding Arrange ideas logically and use words precisely Listen Create an environment for useful feedback Encourage listeners to repeat instructions/paraphrase ideas Provide feedback that describes and doesn?t evaluate Ask questions and provide access Ethical Issues in Communication: Abiding by the law Fair use: individuals have limited rights to use copyrighted material without requiring permission ? assume anything produced after 1989 is copyrighted, including internet material Telling the Truth Dishonesty exposed when advertising/packaging/marketing is lying Labeling Opinions facts: verifiable/quantifiable statements opinions: beliefs held with confidence but w/out substantiation stating opinions as facts is unethical Being Objective Don?t let biases distort a message Report honestly by presenting whole picture/presenting facts fairly Communicate Clearly Write clearly so receivers understand easily/quickly Plain English Laws: require businesses to write policies/warranties/contracts in language comprehensible to average readers ? short sentences, simple worlds, clearly organized Using Inclusive Language don?t discriminate, stereotype, insult, exclude people Giving Credit Refer to originator?s names within text Use quotations Document sources with endnotes, footnotes, internal references * * * * * * * * * * * * Chapter 15 and Lecture Material: Strategies for effective Job Application Letters: Read job posting carefully Make list of skills/qualifications company is looking for Think about what you can bring to the company Match between your experiences/what company wants Don?t discuss your whole background in detail Use letter to highlight parts of résumé you want reader to notice Keep document reader-centered, not writer-centered Describe what you?ll give company, not what you?ll get Make letter future oriented, not backward-looking Layout of paragraphs: 1st ? clearly identify document as job application letter state how you learned of job opening name drop if possible body ? specifically support generalizations demonstrate confidence, show personality end ? orient towards future action include necessary dates/phone numbers don?t be repetitive (too many sentences starting with ?I? frame negatives in a positive way watch your tone ? don?t be cocky * * * * * * * * * * * * Chapter 4: Business Writing Goals: In Business, writing should be?.. 1) Purposeful ? write to solve problems/convey information 2) Persuasive ? audience should believe/accept message 3) Economical ? clear/concise, not lengthy 4) Reader Oriented ? not from your perspective You should express rather than impress Pre-Writing Steps: Analyze, Anticipate, Adapt ANALYZE: Identifying the Purpose Questions: 1) why am I sending this message? 2) what do I hope to achieve? Primary purpose: to inform and to persuade Secondary purpose: to promote goodwill/look good to audience Most business messages only inform, some persuade Persuasive messages used to win over customers, motivate, convince managers, sell products, etc. Select Best Channel Orally vs. written vs. electronically, etc. What to think about when selecting channel: 1) importance of message 2) amount and speed of feedback needed 3) necessity of permanent record 4) cost of channel 5) degree of formality desired 6) confidentiality/sensitivity of message ANTICIPATE: Anticipating writing to three typical audiences Colleagues Easiest way to write ? you already know what to expect Specific info, simple language, informal tone No extensive background info needed BUT message may be read by others ? a little background good Superiors / Decision-Makers Concise, direct messages Background info important Communication channel with permanent record Well organized, informative headings Tone professional/serious Customers / General Audiences Use simple language/informal tone Should create goodwill Friendly, professional tone Include examples, headings, lists, but not too much data Responding to the Profile Anticipating audience helps you shape your message correctly Language, technical terms, tone, best channel, etc. You can recognize if second audience is possible Forwarding of messages may make you change your tone, etc. ADAPT: Adaptation: process of creating a message that suits your audience Tone: reflects how a receiver feels upon reading or hearing a message Poorly chosen words can sound demeaning, condescending, discourteous, pretentious, demanding Spotlight Audience Benefits Stress benefit to readers of what you want them to do (empathy) Think about how reader will decode message Try to solve reader?s problems, save him/her money, understand him/her Cultivate the ?You? Vision Emphasize second-person pronouns (you, your) instead of first-person (I, we, us, our) Don?t try to manipulate the reader Avoid using ?you? in general statements; suggesting blame/could cause ill will Convey sincerity, warmth, enthusiasm through words Make reader feel important Use Bias-Free Language Avoid Gender Bias Replace words excluding/stereotyping women with neutral, inclusive expressions (female doctor vs. doctor) Leave out words ?man? and ?woman? Use plural pronouns/nouns Avoid ?his? or ?her? Avoiding Racial/Ethnic Bias Indicate race only if context demands it Avoid Age Bias Specify age only if relevant, avoid demeaning/subjective expression Avoid Disability Bias Use terms not stigmatizing disabled individuals Be Conversational and Professional Don?t be so casual that you sound low level and unprofessional Sound educated/mature ? don?t use common expressions, ?like? or abbreviations Don?t use slang, fragmentations, chitchat Use warm, conversational tone avoiding low-level diction Don?t be overly formal (big words, long sentences, third person) Express yourself positively Don?t blame/accuse readers with negative words ? creates ill will ?you claim?.? says you don?t believe customer ?mistake?, ?neglected?, ?criticism?, ?complaint? are also dangerous Be courteous Guard against rudeness, avoid demanding/preachy words ?you should?, ?you must?, ?you have to? Say ?will you please? instead and give reasons for request Losing temper/being sarcastic never helps Use polite phrases on phone ?it was a pleasure?, ?I would be happy to??, ?thank you? Simplify Language Use short, familiar words your audience will recognize Don?t avoid a big word if it?s appropriate Don?t be pompous/pretentious Only selectively use jargon Use precise, vigorous words Strong verbs/nouns ? keeps readers interested, gives them more info Don?t overlook thesaurus The ?You? view: Emphasize second-person pronouns (you, your) instead of first-person (I, we, us, our) Don?t try to manipulate the reader Avoid using ?you? in general statements; suggesting blame/could cause ill will Convey sincerity, warmth, enthusiasm through words Make reader feel important * * * * * * * * * * * * Chapter 5: Direct Organizational Pattern: Direct pattern: main idea comes first, followed by details, explanations, evidence Used when reader will be pleased/interested/neutral Convey point as quickly as possible Frontloading: another name for direct method 3 advantages of direct pattern use: 1) saves reader?s time ? may lose reader if point not reached fast 2) sets proper frame of mind ? helps reader get perspective 3) prevents frustration ? readers resent not knowing main point Indirect Organizational Pattern: Indirect pattern: main idea follows details, explanation, evidence Used when reader will be uninterested, unwilling, displeased, hostile Don?t reveal main idea until after explanation/evidence offered Good for bad news, persuasion, sensitive news 3 benefits of indirect pattern use: 1) respects audience?s feelings ? painful, but lessens trauma 2) facilitates fair hearing ? more likely to be read if message delayed 3) minimizes negative reaction through gentle delivery Used for denying requests or persuasive messages, sales letters, etc. * * * * * * * * * * * * * Chapter 6 and Lecture Material: Revision Strategies for Effective Communication: Use familiar words Don?t use pompous phrases, nominalizations, complex formulations, polysyllabic locutions Prefer specific over general?quantify when possible Use statistics, data Use concrete language Be concise ? eliminate wordiness Circumlocution: roundabout, wordy ways of saying things Prepositional phrase: phrases beginning with prepositions Relative clause: clauses beginning with ?who?, ?which?, ?that? Redundancies: repetitions Fillers: empty phrases Euphemisms: vague term substituted for a more direct one Use business language, not bureaucratese (cliché terms) Use parallelism (grammatical/conceptual) Use simple syntax and active voice Keep paragraphs/sentences short Check for correctness Misplaced modifier: misunderstood sentences because of wording Grammatical errors - verb tenses, incorrect pronouns, etc. Wrong words ? homynyms not caught by spell check * * * * * * * * * * * * Chapter 10: Goals for communicating bad news: Primary Goals: 1) make receiver understand bad news 2) have receiver accept bad news 3) maintain positive image of you/your co. Secondary goals: 1) reduce bad feelings 2) convey fairness 3) eliminate future correspondence 4) avoid creating legal liability/responsibility for you/your co 4-part strategy for delivering bad news: Indirect bad news message 1) Buffer ? use positive statement to begin, making reader want to continue Express appreciation for idea offered 2) Reasons ? explain reasons for bad news Use reasons that make sense and show sincerity Depersonalize rejection if possible 3) Bad News ? announce bad news clearly show alternative or compromise state it in positive way do not give false hope 4) Closing ? warm, positive statement of appreciation Direct bad news message 1) Buffer ? same as above 2) Bad News ? stated clearly without offending 3) Reasons ? stated clearly without offending 4) closing ? ends courteously, but door ?closed? (sensitive yet tough)
Want to see the other 7 page(s) in Quiz_1_-_Chaps_1,_5,_4,_5,_6,_10.doc?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!