_____ is a strong affectional bond with special others that endures over time.
In Ainsworth's studies on infant attachment, the _____ infants rarely cried when left along with a stranger.
In Ainsworth's studies on infant attachment, the _____ infants sought their mothers' comfort while also squirming to get away when the mother returned to the room.
According to Ainworth's research using the strange situation procedure, _____ infants used the mothers as a safe base from which to explore the environment.
What conclusions can be drawn from infant-attachment & adult relationship studies?
Early attachment is likely to predict adult relationship styles.
The belief that adult personality reflects how an individual has met/resolved the challenges and crises that occur in 8 stages of development is the definition of _____.
Erikson's psychosocial stages of development
During the _____ stage of psychosocial development, individuals decide whether the world is good & satisfying or painful & unrewarding whereas during the _____ stage, individuals develop a sense of competency/insecurity.
trust vs. mistrust; industry vs. inferiority
Every time her mothers tells her to do something, Sue-Lee says, "No!" even if she really wants to do it. It is MOST likely that Sue-Lee's assertion of independence is characteristic of the _____ stage of development.
Robert is an adolescent who is sullen & withdrawn. He doesn't seem to know where he fits in society. As a result, Robert may have difficulty resolving the _____ developmental stage.
identity versus role confusion
Rebecca finds it difficult to establish close bonds with others, & as a result avoids anything other than superficial relationships. According to Erikson, it is likely that Rebecca had difficulty with the developmental challenge of _____.
intimacy vs. isolation
According to Erickson, generativity in middle adulthood involves _____.
expanding one's concern beyond the immediate family group to the next generation.
Pat is, biologically, a male & likes to play with trucks. The "maleness" is characteristic of Pat's _____, & playing with trucks is characteristic of his _____.
Which of the following may account for gender differences in cognitive abilities?
Research on aggression has found that _____.
genetic factors account for about 50% of aggressive behavior
Women tend to have _____ friends, & express friendship by _____.
less, shared communication
Men attribute success to _____ & failure to _____.
internal factors, external factors
A combination of both male & female personality traits is called _____.
Lawrence Kohlberg studied how people make moral decisions by:
asking people to read stories about moral dilemmas and explain why particular decisions would be right or wrong
When a person decides what is right/wrong based on whether the consequences would be personally rewarding/unpleasant, their moral level would be:
The punishment & obedience orientation toward right & wrong:
is frequently observed in young children
A person whose moral reasoning Kohlberg would call conventional:
basically accepts the rules and values of their society
Kohlberg said that moral development:
consists of stages but many people do not develop all the way to the highest stage
The social-contract orientation to morality:
is based on obeying universal rules even if it requires you to break a local law
Kohlberg suggested the highest level of moral development is:
the postconventional level
The belief that children actively create internal rules about appropriate gender behavior is consistent with _____.
cognitive developmental theory
_________ is a strong affectional bond with special others that endures over time.
In Ainsworth's studies on infant attachment, the _________ infants sought their mothers' comfort while also squirming to get away when the mother returned to the room.
Kohlberg believed his stages of moral development to be _________ .
universal and invariant
Once an individual has accepted and complied with the rules and values of society, that person has advanced to the _________ level of moral development.
According to Erikson, humans progress through eight stages of psychosocial development. Label the CORRECT sequence on the figure below for the “successful” completion of the first four stages.
(a) trust S
(b) autonomy S
(c) initiative S
Label the CORRECT sequence on the figure below for the “successful” completion of the second four stages of Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development.
(a) identity S
(b) intimacy S
(c) generativity S
(d) ego integrity
Your _________ is related to societal expectations for normal and appropriate male or female behavior.
On the basis of internal rules governing correct behaviors for boys versus girls, children form _________ of how they should act.
Cultures in which the needs and goals of the group are emphasized over the needs and goals of the individual are _________ .
_________ has consistently been found to be a key factor in successful relationships.
The _________ theory of aging suggests that successful adjustment is fostered by a full and active commitment to life.
The _________ theory of aging suggests that adjustment to retirement is fostered by mutual withdrawal between the elderly and society.
Which of the following concepts is considered permanent, universal, and nonfunctional?
Which of the following is TRUE about a child's understanding of death?
Preschoolers understand that death is permanent.Preschoolers may not understand that death is universal. Children understand that death is nonfunctional by the age of seven.
Which of the following is the correct sequence for Kübler-Ross's stage theory of dying?
denial; anger; bargaining; depression; acceptance
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