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A(n) ____ explanation would describe eating in terms of the hypothalamus affecting insulin production, which affects the availability of glucose in cells.
How human language developments as the result of genes and the opportunity to hear language during a sensitive period in early life is an example of a(n) _____ explanation.
The view of the brain from above is called the ___ view.
Suppose both the father and the mother are "heterozygous" for the gene that controls ability to curl the tongue lengthwise, and this gene is dominant. What can we predict about their children?
All will be heterozygous for the ability to curl
All will be homozygous for the ability to curl
All will be homozygous for the inability to curl
They may be homozygous or heterozygous for ability to curl, or homozygous for inability
Suppose that adopted children are more similar to their biological parents than their adoptive parents in their preferences for a flavour of ice cream. Which of the following would be true?
Heritability of this trait is high
Preferences for ice cream are determined solely by the environment
Flavours of ice cream are naturally selected
Heritability of this trait is low
Males are more likely than females to exhibit color vision deficiency because of a gene that is:
Recessive and sex-linked
Dominant and sex-linked
Any estimate of the heritability of a particular trait is specific to:
A given population
The strength of the trait
Which of the following is NOT a strong argument in support of conducting animal research?
The underlying mechanisms are similar across species
Certain ethical restrictions make it impossible to use humans
Animals have shorter life spans for studying developmental changes
Animals can’t give consent to participate in research
Minimalists believe that:
All research should be done on animals
Some animal research is acceptable, but not all
No animal research should be conducted
Researchers should only use small animals
The structure that contains the chromosomes is called the:
Where do the metabolic activities occur that provide energy for all of the other activities of the cell?
The surface of a dendrite is lined with specialised junctions through which the dendrite receives information from other neurons. What are these junctions called?
Which type of glia builds myelin sheaths around axons in the periphery of the body?
Of the following, the most important consideration in developing a drug that will act in the brain is:
If the drug can be inexpensively manufactured
If the drug will cross the blood-brain barrier
How long the drug will act
The number of people who will use the drug
Which of the following events would increase the concentration gradient of sodium?
Decreased permeability to potassium ions
Increased membrane permeability to sodium ions
Increased membrane permeability to chloride ions
Increased activity of the sodium potassium pump
What is the result if a stimulus shifts the potential inside a neuron from the resting potential to a more negative potential?
An action potential
The function of a myelin sheath is to:
Prevent action potentials from traveling in the wrong direction
Increase the velocity of transmission along an axon
Increase the magnitude of an action potential
Provide a store of nutrients for the neuron
Saltatory conduction ____ the velocity of action potentials and ____ the amount of energy used by the neuron.
Which of the following is TRUE of local neurons?
They exchange information with distant neurons
They abide by the all-or-nothing principle
The change in membrane potential increases as it travels
They have short dendrite and axons
Like an action potential, an EPSP results from:
Sodium ions entering the cell
Potassium ions entering the cell
Sodium ions exiting the cell
Potassium ions exiting the cell
What is the primary difference between temporal summation and spatial summation?
Only spatial summation can produce an action potential
Spatial summation depends on contributions from more than one sensory neuron
Temporal summation produces a hyperpolarization instead of a depolarization
Spatial summation alters the response of more than one postsynaptic cell
The correct sequence of chemical events at a synapse is:
Reuptake, release, transport, synthesis
Synthesis, transport, release, reuptake
Transport, release, reuptake, synthesis
Recycle, reuse, release, return
The presynaptic terminal stores high concentrations of neurotransmitter molecules in:
Few pianists can play quickly enough to play the Minute Waltz in a minute. The finger movements that are required are likely to involve which type of neurotransmitter effects?
Second messenger effects
Many neurons release neuropeptides mostly from the:
Reuptake is an alternative to which other process?
Recycling of neurotransmitters
Enzymatic breakdown of neurotransmitters
Absorption of neurotransmitter by the postsynaptic neuron
Re-release of neurotransmitters from postsynaptic neurons
A drug that blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter is a(n) ____; a drug that mimics or increases the effects is a(n) ____.
The brain area most often linked to drug addiction is the:
Whole limbic system
What effect do opiate drugs have on dopamine?
They increase the synthesis of dopamine
They directly increase the release of dopamine
They indirectly increase the release of dopamine by blocking transmitters that normally block dopamine
They mimic dopamine
Together, the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system make up the ___ nervous system.
If the ipsilateral dorsal and ventral roots were cut, which of the following would be true?
Sensation would be lost on one side, and motor control on the other
Sensation would be lost on both sides
Motor control would be lost on both sides
Sensation and motor control would be lost on one side
Are located inside the spinal cord
Act more independently than do parasympathetic ganglia
Are closely linked and often act as a single system
Have short postganglionic fibres extending to internal organs
Damage to which hindbrain structure would be most life-threatening?
Secretions from which glad will also affect the secretion of hormones from the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, and ovaries or testes?
What do the corpus callosum and anterior commissure have in common?
They both produce CSF
They both connect the two hemispheres
They are made up of gray matter
They each have 6 laminae
Someone who suddenly loses the ability to identify objects by feeling them has probably suffered damage to what area of the cerebral cortex?
A tumour in the temporal lobe may give rise to:
Flashes of light
Which of the following brain imaging techniques does NOT provide a functional measure of brain activity?
Which of the following methods is dependent upon injecting a radioactive chemical into the blood to measure blood flow?
Stem cells are important for which of the following developmental processes?
Which of the following best characterizes how axons arrive at the correct target cells?
They follow electrical gradients
They follow chemical gradients from the target cell
Axons send out chemicals to the target cells
Target cells send out branches for the axons to follow
The final stage of neurodevelopment is called:
Which of the following is NOT a function of neurotrophins?
Direct axonal growth during development
Increase axonal branching in mature neurons
Increase regrowth of axons after brain damage
Induce apoptosis of neurons
What brain abnormalities are found in children with fetal alcohol syndrome?
Short axons with few branches
Short dendrites with few branches
Lack of dopamine receptors
Smaller than normal ventricles
Alcohol can damage the developing brain by:
Tearing the cell membrane
Increasing synaptic inhibition and therefore apoptosis
Interfering with protein production
Ischemia is to ____ as haemorrhage is to ____.
Older individuals; younger individuals
Barely noticeable; lethal
Diaschisis refers to the:
Increase in activity of neurons surrounding a damaged area
Decreased activity of surviving neurons after other neurons are damaged
Increased activity in the cerebral cortex after damage to any part of the brain
Increased activity in the hypothalamus after damage to any part of the brain
___ occurs as a surviving axon grows a new branch to replace the synapses left vacant by a damaged axon.
If findings from rat studies generalize to humans, then which of the following best describes how brain damage affects memory for a learned skill?
It destroys the memory forever
The memory is not affected
The memory may be present, but difficult to locate
The old memory is lost, but new ones are easier to acquire
All of the following are reasons why the fovea is well-suited for highly detailed vision EXCEPT:
There are few blood vessels there
There are few ganglion cells there
The receptors are tightly-packed there
The optic nerve connects there
In comparison to the rods, cones are more:
Common toward the periphery of the retina
Sensitive to detail
Sensitive to dim light
Common in rodents and other nocturnal animals
If you wanted to see a faint star at night, you should:
Stare straight at it
Look slightly to one side
Look at a mirror’s reflection of it
Wait until daytime
At the level of rods and cones, the ____ theory seems to fit best, while at the level of the bipolar cells, the ____ theory seems to fit best.
Opponent process; volley
Opponent process; trichromatic
Trichromatic; opponent process
In humans, the optic nerves from the two eyes follow what pathway?
They go directly to the ipsilateral hemisphere, without contacting each other
They go directly to the contralateral hemisphere, without contacting each other
Half of the axons from each eye cross to the other side at the optic chiasm
They combine to send identical information to each hemisphere
Suppose someone has a genetic defect that prevents the formation of horizontal cells in the retina. Which visual phenomenon is most likely to be impaired?
Parvocellular neurons most likely receive input from:
Bipolar cells that receive input from cones
The periphery of the retina
The visual path in the parietal cortex is referred to as the:
Children with strabismus often fail to develop:
Perception of movement
The ability to recognise faces
Stereoscopic depth perception
Any kind of depth perception
The ability that you have to determine that your eyes are moving, instead of the room that you are in, is a function of which brain area?
Primary visual cortex
Inferior temporal cortex
What memory task would a typical patient with Korsakoff’s syndrome be able to do without difficulty?
Recall the temporal order of events
Remember someone he or she met in the past week
An implicit memory task
An explicit memory task
Where is the basilar membrane most sensitive to the vibrations of very high-frequency sound waves?
Closest to the cochlea
At the apex, farthest from the cochlea
About halfway between the cochlea and the apex
It is equally sensitive across the entire membrane
Which of the following are presented in the correct order when describing some of the structures that sound waves travel through as they pass from the outer ear to the inner ear?
Pinna, tympanic membrane, oval window, cochlea
Tympanic membrane, pinna, cochlea
Pinna, stapes, eardrum
Malleus, tympanic membrane, oval window, pinna
Which of the following tasks would split-brain patients be able to perform better than other people?
Tying their shoes
Completing an intelligence test
Using both hands simultaneously to draw separate shapes
Which of the following would a person with conductive deafness be able to hear better than a person with nerve deafness?
Other people talking
A 9-week-old child does not reach with the right hand toward an object in the left visual field:
Because the corpus callosum is not yet mature
Until connections are mature enough between the right eye and the brain
Because the child cannot maintain balance when the centre of gravity moves to one side
Until the visual cortex is mature
Adaptation is to ___ as cross-adaptation is to ___
Same tastes; different tastes
Overstimulation; rebound effects
Weak stimulation; strong stimulation
CaMKII is directly activated by:
Compared to young adults, aging humans with poor working memory have ___ activity in the prefrontal cortex, and aging humans with intact working memory have ___ activity in the prefrontal cortex.
During binocular rivalry, what do people ordinarily perceive?
Complete visual perception from both eyes
Steady, static images
Rapidly oscillating static images
Alternation of one eye’s view and then the other’s
How many kinds of olfactory receptors do we have?
2 or 3
Humans localise low frequencies by ___ differences and high frequencies by ___ differences
In Pavlov’s experiments, he presented a sound followed by meat. Gradually the sound came to elicit salivation. The meat in this experiment was the:
Redirect the person’s attention
Give the person certain muscle exercises
Increase the person’s relaxation
It is not possible
Lateralisation refers to the:
Formation of the sulci and gyri in the cortex
Specialised division of labour bewten the two hemispheres
Slow rate of maturation in forebrain structures
Physical changes that occur in neurons as learning takes place
More typical of dyslexic people than of other people is:
A planum temporale that is larger in the left hemisphere than the right hemisphere
A bilaterally symmetrical cerebral cortex
Damage to the posterior portion of the corpus callosum
An over responsive magnocellular pathway in the visual system
Nearly simultaneous stimulation by two or more axons produces LTP, whereas stimulation by just one produces it weakly, if at all. This is known as the property of:
There are many more VNO receptors
VNO receptors are continuously growing
VNO receptors do not adapt
olfactory receptors are sensitive to pheromones
Operant conditioning is to ___ as classical conditioning is to ___.
Patients with damage in area MT have problems with perception of:
location of sounds
location of objects
movement of objects and sounds
high frequency sounds
Perception of a low tone is to ____ as perception of a high tone is to ____.
Volley principle; frequency theory
Frequency theory; place theory
Place theory; volley principle
Gate theory; frequency theory
Plaques and tangles in the cerebral cortex are characteristic of people with:
Preventing learning is to ____ as suppressing a response is to ____.
Classical conditioning; operant conditioning
Operant conditioning; classical conditioning
The red nucleus; the lateral interpositus nucleus
The lateral interpositus nucleus; the red nucleus
Someone suffering from Wernicke’s aphasia has difficulty:
Using prepositions and conjunctions
Someone with Broca’s aphasia has the greatest difficulty:
Understanding spoken language
Understanding written language
Remembering the names of objects
Someone with a mild to moderate case of Alzheimer's disease would be most likely to remember which of the following?
How to drive a car
What make of car he or she drives
Where he or she parked the car
The time he or she most recently drove a car
The hippocampus is more important for remembering the ____ of memory and less necessary for remembering the ____.
Gist; contextual details
Contextual details; gist
Visual aspects; auditory aspects
Auditory aspects; visual aspects
The right hemisphere of the human brain receives visual input from the:
Retina of the left eye
Retina of the right eye
Left half of each retina
Right half of each retina
The strongest evidence for a critical period for human language development is the:
Exceptional language abilities of children with Williams syndrome
Different lateralization of first language and second language
Differences in language between Broca's aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia
Difficulty deaf children have learning sign language if they start late
The taste nerves initially project to the:
Nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the medulla.
Orbital prefrontal cortex.
A combination of benzodiazepines and alcohol should be avoided because:
Each magnifies the effect of the other
Each cancels the effect of the other
They react with each other chemically to form a new compound
The combination produces excessive anxiety
A loss of dopamine activity leads to ____ stimulation of the motor cortex and ____ onset of movements.
A neuromuscular junction is a synapse:
Where a sensory axon delivering information from a muscle meets a neuron
Where a motor neuron axon meets a muscle fibre
Specific to cardiac muscles
Where a muscle excites or inhibits a neuron
A person's circadian activity cycle would most likely drift out of phase with the activity of other people if the person:
Spends a period of time in the wilderness, away from clocks
Habitually eats a big meal just before bedtime
Spends a period of time in seclusion, away from sunlight
Lives near the equator, where the seasons do not vary
A proprioceptor is sensitive to the:
Degree of relaxation or concentration of smooth muscle tissue
Position and movement of a part of the body
Percentage of fibres that are contracting within a muscle bundle
Degree of fatigue in a muscle
According to the activation-synthesis hypothesis, what do dreams reflect?
The brain's attempt to make sense of spontaneous neural activity
Unconscious motivations and emotions
Experiences that have been part of the species' evolutionary history
An imbalance among hormone levels
Damage to the insular cortex impairs the sense of taste and the ability to recognise:
Depression is linked to __ serotonin, and aggressive behaviour is linked to __ serotonin.
During sleep, what happens in the brain?
Cessation of spontaneous activity in neurons
Increased firing by dopamine neurons
Decreased firing by dopamine neurons
Increased firing by GABA neurons
High cortisol levels increase the likelihood that hippocampal cells will be:
responsive to new learning
capable of generating a circadian rhythm
synchronised to sensory stimulation
vulnerable to damage by toxins
If suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons are disconnected from the rest of the brain, they:
No longer produce any activity
Continue to produce activity that follows a circadian rhythm
Produce a 20 hour rhythm
Produce spontaneous bursts of activity, but on no rhythmic pattern
In the absence of any light, dark, or time cues, human circadian rhythms would:
Become much shorter than 24 hours
Become slightly longer than 24 hours
Cease to exist
Make the person crazy
Movements near the midline of the body, such as bending and turning of the trunk, are controlled by which motor system?
One explanation for narcolepsy in humans is:
A loss of orexin-containing neurons in the hypothalamus
A genetic loss of basal forebrain neurons
Damage to the locus coeruleus
Recognition of an angry expression is faster when the face is directed __ you, and a fearful expression is faster if it is directed __.
To the side; toward you
Toward you; to the side
Toward you; toward you
To the side; to the side
Research suggests that REM is:
Important for all types of memory
Most important for strengthening memoires of motor skills
Most important for strengthening memories of lists of words
Not important for strengthening memories of any kind
Seyle inferred that any threat to the body, in addition to its specific effects, activated a generalised response to stress, which he called the:
general stress syndrome
general adaptation syndrome
general activation sundrome
general limbic syndrome
Speaking, piano playing, athletic skills, and other rapid movements would be most impaired by damage to which structure?
Parasympathetic nervous system
Studies of aggressive and criminal behaviours in adulthood have found that:
There doesn't appear to be a genetic link
There appears to be more aggression by twins than non-twins
Monozygotic twins resemble each other more closely than dizygotic twins
Dizygotic twins resemble each other more closely than monozygotic twins
The Behavioural Activation System is associated with:
Low to moderate arousal, tendency to approach new objects, and which could characterise either happiness or anger
Maximum arousal, increased fear, and negative mood
Lack of arousal, decreased action, and pleasant mood
Increased attention and arousal, decreased action, and fear or disgust
The EEG record for REM sleep is most similar to which other sleep stage?
The amygdala send axons to the __, which in turn sends axons to the pons to control the startle reflex.
The greater the number of Purkinje cells activated, the:
Less the collective duration of the response
Greater the collective duration of the responses
Greater the strength of the response
Less the strength of the response
The psychological disorders that accompany Huntington’s disease could be mistaken for which of the following?
Dissociative identity disorder
Antisocial personality disorder
The sympathetic nervous system is to ___ as the parasympathetic nervous system is to __.
Striated muscles; smooth muscles
Watching another person shoot a basketball is most likely to activate __ neurons in the brain of the person who is watching.
Primary motor cortex
Which of the following events would most likely activate the locus coeruleus?
Taking a nap
Hearing a bear growl in the woods
Which of the following is NOT common in people with Parkinson’s disease?
Difficulty initiating voluntary movements
Slowness of movements
Rigidity and tremors
Outbursts of emotion
Which of the following is an example of a motor program in a human?
A list of things to do today
A baby's first steps
A teenager learning to drive
With each succeeding stage of sleep (from 1 to 4):
Slow, large-amplitude waves increase in number.
Breathing and heart rates increase.
Brain activity increases.
Brain waves become smaller.
An animal has trouble digesting its food after damage to the:
medial part of the hypothalamus
An example of a “negative symptom” of schizophrenia is:
Poor emotional expression
An organising effect differs from an activating effect of a hormone in that an organising effect:
Inhibits the effects of another hormone
lasts only briefly
activates excitatory receptors
produces more long-lasting effects
Animals eat more frequent (but normal size) meals after damage to the ___. They eat larger meals (but at a normal frequency) after damage to the ___.
Paraventricular nucleus; ventromedial hypothalamus
Ventromedial hypothalamus; paraventricular nucleus
Lateral hypothalamus; ventromedial hypothalamus
Paraventricular nucleus; lateral hypothalamus
Cells in the peroptic area of the hypothalamus monitor which temperatures?
Their own and the skin
Differences between the arteries and veins
Differences between internal organs and the skin
Compared to non-depressed people, which of the following is true regarding people with depression?
They have greater unpleasant events
They have fewer pleasant experiences
They react worse to unpleasant events
They react more to pleasant experiences
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is most likely to have which of these effects?
Genetic male develops looking partly feminised
Genetic male develops a homosexual orientation
Genetic female develops looking partly masculinised
Genetic female develops excessive appetite
Consuming too much salt will trigger ____ thirst. Bleeding or heavy sweating will trigger ____ thirst.
Estrogens directly stimulate parts of the prefrontal cortex that are important for:
Most depressed people show ___ activity in the ___ prefrontal cortex.
Increased; right and left
Most homosexual men, as compared to heterosexual men, have:
Lower levels of testosterone
Testosterone levels within the same range
Higher levels of testosterone
Higher levels of estrogen
One advantage of being homeothermic is that it:
Reduces the fuel requirements of the body
Prevents excessive reliance on a single sensory system
Enables the individual to stay active when the environment is cool
Decreases the need for shivering and sweating
Research suggests that ___ levels correlate with several aspects of motherly attention to an infant.
Research suggests that the brain abnormalities in people with schizophrenia develop:
Early and fluctuate drastically throughout life
Early and then remain fairly steady
Late in life and progressively get worse
Late in life and remain fairly steady
Schizophrenia is a complex disorder in which both ____ and ____ play important roles.
Someone shows symptoms resembling schizophrenia, especially the positive symptoms, but is not schizophrenic. Which of the following disorders is most likely?
Seasonal affective disorder
Substance-induced psychotic disorder
Someone with androgen insensitivity is genetically:
Female, but looks intermediate between male and female
Female, but fails to show any changes at puberty
Male, looks like a typical male, but behaves more like a female
Male, but develops looking more like a female
The belief that outer space aliens are trying to control one’s behaviour is classified as a:
Symptom of catatonia
The frequency of homosexuality in men is highest if:
A sister is homosexual
An adopted brother is homosexual
A dizygotic twin brother is homosexual
A monozygotic twin brother is homosexual
The vagus nerve is to __ as the splanchnic nerves are to __.
stomach fullness; nutrient contents of the stomach
the taste of food; the texture of food
nutrient contents of the stomach; water contents of the stomach
oral factors (such as chewing and taste); stomach fullness
Two major classes of sex hormones are:
luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone
dopamine and serotonin
steroids and thyroid hormones
androgens and estrogens
Variations in insulin level alter hunger by changing the:
rate of emptying by the stomach
availability of glucose to the cells
sensitivity of the taste buds
ability of CCK to cross the blood-brain barrier
Vasopressin raises blood pressure by:
Causing the blood vessels to dilate.
Constricting the blood vessels.
Increasing the blood's salt concentration.
Decreasing the blood's salt concentration.
What is one of the best treatments for seasonal affective disorder?
Electroconvulsive shock therapy
What would cause a mammal to develop the anatomy of a male, regardless of its chromosomes?
Exposure to high levels of testosterone during an early stage of development
Deprivation of estradiol during an early stage of development
Exposure to neither testosterone nor estradiol during an early stage of development
An infusion of testosterone at puberty
Which is true of androgens and estrogens?
Only males have androgens; only females have estrogens
Only males have estrogens; only females have androgens
Males and females have androgens and estrogens in similar amounts
Males and females both have androgens and estrogens, but in different amounts
Which of the following characterizes total brain activity, as measured by the rate of glucose metabolism, in those suffering from mood disorders?
High in both mania and depression
Low in both mania and depression
Low in mania and high in depression
High in mania and low in depression
Which of the following would lead to eating a larger than normal meal?
Increasing leptin levels
Decreasing NPY levels
Increasing NPY levels
Damaging the lateral hypothalamus
Which of the following, if any, is significantly more effective than the others in relieving depression?
There is no significant difference
___ signals the brain about the body’s fat reserves, providing a long-term indicator of whether meals have been too large or too small.
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