Last Modified: 2011-06-28
- ...your quote is short and you're introducing it with a phrase like "he said" or "he replied"
- ex. Twain observed, "Only presidents..."
- you've made a full statement and are now supplying a quote to illustrate or prove it
- when your quote extends past one sentence
- when you're indenting the quote because it's hefty
- the syntax of your sentence requires it
- ex. Max said that Comrades "will lie embalmed." - right
- ex. Max said that, "Writing and rewriting are hard." - wrong
- ....INSIDE closing quotation marks, even if the comma or period wasn't part of the original quotation
- ...OUTSIDE closing quotation marks; and so do exclamation points and question marks--if they weren't part of the quotation
- ex. Did I write rain"? I mean "reign." No, no, not "rein," and certainly not "rain"!
- ex. "Oscar Wilde remarked, "Truth is never pure, and rarely simple"; half truths, however, suffer neither inconvenience.
- ....isolate it from the surrounding text by setting it off, either with quotation marks or italics
- ex. Many people apparently think that apply and infer are synonyms
- ex. Is this what you call "ethnic cleansing"?
- ....NEVER put it in quotation marks
- ...forget quotation marks and go with italics or underlining instead
- quotation marks only compound your offense by highlighting the trite expression
- they're bound to irritate readers because, implicitly, you're claiming that you really know better
- traditionally typed single-spaced and indented
- to introduce their quote with a lead-in ending in a period instead of a colon
- to sandwich their big quote smack in the middle of their own sentence
- *to lead the quote in ultra-mechanically, saving all the commentary until afterward
- big no-no
- a quote lacking explicit attribution
- a quote that is attributed to some vague , conspicuously unnamed source such as a "congressman", sometimes needed to protect a source
- authenticity before all else; if you aim to create truly realistic speech rhythms, you must flout standard written English; ex. sentence fragments
- avoid semicolons--nobody talks in semicolons
- avoid nonsense like "Aw, you're not that old, she grinned." instead, say laughed
- let your reader supply 90% of the exclamation points and italics
- in direct address, set off the person's name with a comma, even if that comma/pause is slurred over in normal speech
- ...run in, in quotation marks, as part of your text; use a slash (/) to indicate the end of one line and the beginning of a next
- a parenthetical reference completes the clause containing your quote, so your final punctuation of that clause should follow the reference, not precede it
- as for any comma or period that originally appeared at the end of your quote-simply cut it-it's now functionless and would create double-punctuation.
- but if your quote ends in a question mark or exclamation point, keep that punctuation so your quote will read intelligibly
- end the block quote with whatever punctuation applies
- set the whole parenthetical reference outside that punctuation mark
- points composed of three spaced period (. . .) that indicate an omission of a word or words in a quotation, most typically somewhere in the middle
- *if you're quoting an obvious fragment--a mere clause or phrase--ellipsis points aren't necessary
- if you end your sentence with a quotation that has an ellipsis at the end, you must supply a final punctuation mark; the ellipsis, doesn't double as a period; ex. She remarked, "She spoke so pleasantly about them. . . ."
- ...when you want to insert some brief note or clarification into quotations
Words From Our Students
"StudyBlue is great for studying. I love the study guides, flashcards, and quizzes. So extremely helpful for all of my classes!"
Alice, Arizona State University
"I'm a student using StudyBlue, and I can 100% say that it helps me so much. Study materials for almost every subject in school are available in StudyBlue. It is so helpful for my education!"
Tim, University of Florida
"StudyBlue provides way more features than other studying apps, and thus allows me to learn very quickly! I actually feel much more comfortable taking my exams after I study with this app. It's amazing!"
Jennifer, Rutgers University
"I love flashcards but carrying around physical flashcards is cumbersome and simply outdated. StudyBlue is exactly what I was looking for!"