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When modifying the PA axial projection of the skull to demonstrate superior orbital fissures, the central ray is directed
All the following rules regarding proper hand washing technique are correct except
Medial displacement of a tibial fracture would be best demonstrated in the
The squeegee assembly in an automatic processor
functions to remove excess solution from films
is located near the crossover rollers
helps establish the film's rate of travel
Which of the following would be the safest interval of time for a fertile woman to undergo abdominal radiography without significant concern for irradiating a recently fertilized ovum?
1.Between the humeral trochlea and the semilunar/trochlear notch
2. Between the capitulum and the radial head
3. The proximal radioulnar joint
terrestrial an internal radionuclides
Stochastic effects of radiation are those that
1. have a threshold
2. may be described as "all-or-nothing" effects
3. are late effects
Which of the following dose-response curve characteristics represent genetic and some somatic responses to radiation?
EXPLANATION: Genetic effects of radiation and some somatic effects, like leukemia, are plotted on a linear dose–response curve. The linear dose–response curve has no threshold, that is, there is no dose below which radiation is absolutely safe. The sigmoidal dose–response curve has a threshold and is thought to be generally correct for most somatic effects. (Bushong, p 498)
With milliamperes (mA) increased to maintain output intensity, how is the ESE affected as the source-to-skin distance (SSD) is increased?
Image quality in digital fluoroscopy is influenced by
1. pixel size.
The advantages of capacitor-discharge mobile x-ray equipment include
high kilovoltage capability
Which of the following affect(s) both the quantity and the quality of the primary beam?
Half-value layer (HVL)
How would the introduction of a 6-in. OID affect image contrast?
Shoulder arthrography is performed to
evaluate humeral luxation
demonstrate complete or partial rotator cuff tear
evaluate the glenoid labrum
If an emergency trauma patient experiences hemorrhaging from a leg injury, the radiographer should
1. apply pressure to the bleeding site.
2. call the emergency department for assistance.
3. apply a pressure bandage and complete the examination.
Which of the following diastolic pressure readings might indicate hypertension?
Important considerations for radiographic examinations of traumatic injuries to the upper extremity include
the joint closest to the injured site should be supported during movement of the limb.
both joints must be included in long bone studies.
two views, at 90 degrees to each other, are required
The type of shock often associated with pulmonary embolism or myocardial infarction is classified as
Methods of reducing radiation exposure to patients and/or personnel include
1. beam restriction.
3. high-kV, low-mAs factors.
With which of the following does the lateral extremity of the clavicle articulate?
To ensure proper operation of the digital image display monitor, all of the following are important in order to develop a quality control (QC) program, except:
The radiographer's radiation monitor report must include which of the following information?
1. Lifetime dose equivalent
2. Quarterly dose equivalent
3. Inception date
Gas-producing powder or crystals usually are ingested for which of the following examinations?
the focal spot-to-table distance, in mobile fluoroscopy, must be
A) a minimum of 15 in.
B) a maximum of 15 in.
C) a minimum of 12 in.
D) a maximum of 12 in.
The legal doctrine respondeat superior relates to which of the following?
Which of the following blood pressure measurements might indicate shock?
In classifying IV contrast agents, the total number of dissolved particles in solution per kilogram of water defines
Although the stated focal-spot size is measured directly under the actual focal spot, focal-spot size in fact varies along the length of the x-ray beam. At which portion of the x-ray beam is the effective focal spot the largest?
When caring for the elderly, it is important to remember that, as one ages, there is often a decrease in:
1. reaction time
3. long-term memory
Ipecac is a medication used to induce vomiting and is classified as a(n)
Which of the following conditions require(s) a decrease in technical factors?
Which of the following function(s) to reduce the amount of scattered radiation reaching the IR?1.Grid devices2.Restricted focal spot size3.Beam restrictors
What should be done to correct for magnification when using air-gap technique?
Secondary radiation barriers usually require the following thickness of shielding:
If the exposure rate to an individual standing 2.0 m from a source of radiation is 15 R/min, what will be the dose received after 2 minutes at a distance of 5 m from the source?
EXPLANATION: The relationship between x-ray intensity and distance from the source is expressed in the inverse square law of radiation. The formula is
Substituting known values:
25 x = 60
x = 2.4 R/minute at 2 m = 4.8 R after 2 minutes
Distance has a profound effect on dose received and therefore is one of the cardinal rules of radiation protection. As distance from the source increases, dose received decreases. (Bushong, pp 68-70)
If the entrance dose for a particular radiograph is 320 mR, the radiation exposure at 1 m from the patient will be approximately
EXPLANATION: During radiography and fluoroscopy, radiation scatters from the patient in all directions. In fact, the patient is the single most important scattering object in both radiographic and fluoroscopic procedures. The approximate intensity (quantity) of scattered radiation at 1 m from the patient is 0.1% of the entrance dose. Therefore, if the entrance dose for this image is 320 mR, the intensity of radiation at 1 m from the patient is 0.1% of that, or 0.32 mR (0.001 x 320 = 0.32). (Bushong, 8th ed., p. 572)
Which of the following techniques is used to evaluate the dynamics of a part?
Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the proper care of a patient with a tracheostomy?
Employ sterile technique if you must touch a tracheostomy for any reason.
Before you suction a tracheostomy, the patient should be well aerated.
Never suction for longer than 15 seconds, permitting the patient to rest in between.
The advantages of high-frequency generators over earlier types of generators include
nearly constant potential.
lower patient dose.
Contaminated needles are disposed of in special containers in which of the following ways?
It is essential to question female patients of childbearing age regarding the
date of their last menstrual period
possibility of their being pregnant
number of x-ray examinations they have had in the past 12 months
When an image intensifier's magnification mode is used,1.output screen gain is increased.2.resolution increases.3.patient dose increases.
how does the use of rare earth intensifying screens contribute to lowering the patient dose?
1) It permits the use of lower mAs
2) It permits the use of lower kvp
3) it eliminates the need for patient sheilding
What is likely to result from using single-emulsion film in an IR that has a two intensifying screens?
If 300 mA has been selected for a particular exposure, what exposure time should be selected to produce 18 mAs?
Which of the following is considered long term somatic effect of exposure to ionizing radiation
1. Life-span shortening
The output phosphor can be coupled with the Vidicon TV camera or charge-coupled device (CCD) via
an image distributor or lens.
To radiograph an infant for suspected free air within the abdominal cavity, which of the following projections of the abdomen will demonstrate the condition with the least patient exposure?
22.What apparatus is needed for the construction of a sensitometric curve?
(A)1 and 2 only
(B)1 and 3 only
(C)2 and 3 only
(D)1, 2, and 3
(A) 1 and 2 only
A film emerging from the automatic processor exhibits excessive density. This might be attributable to the following
Developer temperature too high
What is the appropriate action if a patient has signed consent for a procedure but, once on the radiographic table, refuses the procedure?
Exposure-type artifacts include
poor screen–film contact
The patient usually is required to drink barium sulfate suspension in order to demonstrate which of the following structures?
Use of a portion of the input phosphor during fluoroscopy, rather than the entire input phosphor, will result in
1. a larger field of view (FOV).
2. a magnified image.
3. improved spatial resolution.
Which of the following digital post-processing methods remove high-frequency noise from the image?
Which of the following is (are) part of the bony thorax?
Each of the following statements regarding respiratory structures is true except
The hard palate is formed by the
1. ethmoid bone.
2. maxillary bone.
3. palatine bone.
To determine how quickly an x-ray tube will disperse its accumulated heat, the radiographer uses a(n)
In amorphous selenium flat-panel detectors, the term amorphous refers to a
Which one of the following is (are) used to control the production of scattered radiation?
Use of grids
Which interaction between x-ray photons and matter involves partial transfer of the incident photon energy to the involved atom?
The sternoclavicular joints will best demonstrated in which of the following positions?
A, apical lordotic
B. anterior oblique
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