Employers must provide a place of employment that is free of recognizable hazards that could cause death or serious physical harm. "OSHA does inspections but does not design programs for safety or maintenance.
Describe Equal Employment Opportunity Legislation
Prohibits employment or advancing discrimination against race, color, religion, sex or national origin. Based on Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Define a closed shop:
The organization can only hire union employees. "This practice is due to discrimination."
Define an open shop:
The employee is not required to join the union, but can at any time.
Describe the autocratic style of leadership.
Manager makes decisions and announces it. this is the most time saving to the organization.
Describe the proper lifting technique.
Square your body with the object. Bend with your knees not your back. Keep the object close to your body.
Define the term "prospectus" :
Well thought out plans to insure completeness.
Define the term "line position" :
An internal, responsible for production, direct line of authority position.
What is the rule on employee breaks?
Employees are required by federal law to have a 10 minute break for 4 hours of scheduled work.
Name the three managerial skills.
"As the manager advances, he must increase his conceptual skills."
What can management do to discourage an employee from joining the union?
Management can tell employee of union dues. "Management cannot legally threaten, discriminate or fire employees for joining a union."
Describe the Wagner Act of 1935:
Also known as the National Labor Relations Act. Prevents management from taking unfair actions against employees who wish to join unions.
Describe the Equal Pay Act.
Requires employees to pay equal wages to men and women for doing the same job.
An objective third party is brought in during an impasse to make decisions to resolve disagreements between union and management. "This is legally binding."
An objective third party helps to resolve differences during negotiations. "This is NOT legally binding."
Define a union shop:
The employee must join the union after a specified probation time period.
Describe the democratic style of leadership.
Employees are encouraged to give input and aid in making decisions. Voting may take place. "Management by objectives is an example."
Define the term "staff position":
An advisory, external and/or support position.
Define the term "unity of command":
There is one main boss.
When interviewing, what questions are illegal to ask?
Questions concerning marital status, children, religion, age and other EEOC issues.
Describe the difference between job description and job specification:
Job description are the duties of a job.
Job specification specifies the minimum qualifications or standards needed.
Describe Workman's compensation.
Compensation is given to employee who are involved in accidents at work.
"This is administered by each state government."
Describe the function of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB):
The NLRB protects the employees bargaining rights. It investigates any labor dispute that affects interstate commerce.
Describe a PERT chart.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique used for planning as well as for controlling more complex departmental activities. "Aids in controlling time and emphasizes planning."
Describe the Bureau of Labor Standards.
This is where you would look to find reliable wage information of employment.
Define collective bargaining.
Negotiations between the union and management concerning working conditions, pay, etc.
Describe the role of the shop steward.
The shop steward is the union representative in the organization. He/she is voted in by the other union employees in the organization.
Describe the participative style of leadership
Manager presents problem, gets suggestion from employees and makes decisions. "This develops leadership skills in employees."
Describe the laissez-faire style of leadership.
Manager permits subordinates to function within limits defined by supervisor.
Define the term "span of control":
The scope of responsibility or the number of employees under a supervisor. "A narrow or small span of control is best with new and untrained employees."
Define the term "chain of command":
The formal lines of authority and communication.
What is the best way to train and orient new employees?
Using pre-planned programs that are standardized for all employees of the job.
Describe a Gantt chart.
Used for relatively simple tasks, it aids in scheduling.
Describe the Fair Labor Standards Act.
Establishes minimum wage, requires hourly employees to be paid overtime after 40 hours, controls employment of "under 16 years old."
Describe the Taft-Haftley Act of 1947.
A pro-management act that states certain union practices are unfair; such as refusing to bargain with management and charging initiation fees.
Describe a Flow or Process Chart.
A visual representation of the steps in any given process, it provides a useful way to examine how each step in the process relates to the other steps.
Describe the Landrum-Griffan Act
Also known as Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act. Strengthens democracy within unions. Protects rights of individuals and limits the economic and political power of unions.
Describe the Norris-LaGuardia Act.
Protects the employee from discrimination during times of strike.
Define an agency shop.
Employees do not have to join the union but must contribute money to the union.
What is usually the basis of advancement of a union employee?
Define the term "philosophy of the organization."
A framework for organizational goals and objectives
Define the term "organization chart":
A chart showing the authority and formal lines of communication in an institution
Describe grievance procedures.
1st step) oral warning; 2nd step) written documentation; 3rd step) Suspension; 4th step) termination; "If employees begin fighting, send them home."
When should an employee be given his/her performance expectations?
On the first day of employment
Describe the Age Discrimination Act.
Prohibits employers with 20 or more workers from discriminating against employers 40 years and older.
Describe the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Employers are not allowed to practice the most obvious forms of discrimination based on color, race, religion, sex or national origin.
The cafeteria has an annual food cost of $300,000, and it maintains an average inventory of $14,000. What is the inventory turnover figure for the cafeteria?
21.4 or 21 inventory turnover. See answer sheet.
The census is 400, with 8 employees on the trayline that runs 1 1/2 hours, how many trays per minute would you serve?
4.44 trays per minute
See answer sheet
If raw food cost is $0.15, what is the selling price? The food cost percentage is 20%.
.75 cents selling price. See answer sheet.
You are planning the budget for next year. It is estimated that food costs will increase by 5%, labor costs by 12% and overhead by 5%. Given the following information, calculate the new budget. Sales = $1,000,000; labor costs= 40%; food cost = 40%; overhead costs= 20%
$1,078,000 is the new budget.
see answer sheet
Describe the formula for determining A.P.
A.P. = E.P./ % yield
Describe the formula for determining E.P.
E.P. = A.P. x % yield
Describe the formula for food cost percent:
food cost %= [food cost/sales] x 100
What do you do in emergency situations; i.e., "Boil water Advisory" or tornado warning?
Check the disaster plan for complete instructions. "Always be sure you know where the disaster plan is kept."
Describe the difference between a line and a staff position.
Line position has direct contact within the department (is inside the department).
Staff position has indirect contact with the department (is outside the department).
When is it appropriate to release information of sealed bids during formal bidding?
After the award of the bid has been decided. "Bidders are not allowed to know in advance."
Name ways dietitians promote sustainability.
Dietitians can encourage: -dietary variety; -foods produced with fewer inputs; -consumption of locally produced foods; -alternative protein sources; -economic food purchasing
How many FTEs would it take to cover 12 positions, 8 hours a day, 7 days a week?
17 FTEs; see answer sheet
How many 1-cup servings are in a case of #10 cans?
Approximately 75 there are 6 cans to a case of #10 cans. 1 #10 can weighs approximately 6.5 lbs. 6 cans x 6.5lbs = 39 lbs per case. 39x16oz. = 624 oz. per case. 624 oz/8oz in a cup = 78 or approximately 75.
Define a cooperative or "co-op" in the purchasing arena.
Small facilities purchase items together to increase purchasing power, therefore, decreasing cost of the products.
Name the purchase of a hot pellet.
It is used to keep food trays warm during transport and delivery.
If you discover that a mistake has been made, what is the first thing to do?
Check to see if the mistake was made on your part first. we all make mistakes. "Always check yourself first."
Name the recommended humidity of dry goods storage.
Name the recommended humidity for storage of fresh fruits and vegetables.
85-95% "Fruits and vegetables need a moist environment to retain water content."
What material works best on walls in the kitchen?
Washable and non-porous materials such as glazed tiles
Name the highest energy-using piece of equipment in the kitchen.
Deep fat fryer
What temperature should coffee be served?
180-190 degrees F. This is a quality issue not a food safety issue.
Leftovers should be heated to what temperature?
165 degrees F. "Always use leftovers first. Never mix fresh foods with leftovers."
Name the area where a hand sink is mandatory in the kitchen/serving line.
A hand sink must be available in the production area of the kitchen.
Name the appropriate length of time to wash your hands.
30 seconds. Use warm soapy water for 10 seconds. Dry hands with a clear towel. Use another clean, dry towel to turn off the water.
Describe how to determine which scoop to use when portioning.
The number of each scoop determines how many servings per quart (or 32 oz.) A #8 scoop contains 8 servings per quart. There are 32 oz. in a quart, so 32/ 8= 4 oz. portions
Describe the effect of a "too humid" environment on food.
Caking and molding can occur.
What must be included on a standardized recipe?
2. Procedure for combining ingredients
3. Yield of the recipe
Name the primary control of the foodservice system.
The menu is the primary control. It is important to unify the menu to meet the needs of all clients (patients, staff and family) to control costs.
Money obtained from goods and services.
Using a 316 scoop, how many quarts of batter would you use to make 144 muffins?
9 quarts needed
see answer sheet
Pre-diced tomatoes cost $0.75/lb. A bulk order of whole tomatoes cost $18.00 for 50 lbs. The yield is 75%. It takes an employee 1 1/2 hours to clean and core the tomatoes. The employee earns $5.85/hr. Is it more cost efficient to buy pre-diced or whole tomatoes?
.71 cents E.P. It is cheaper to buy in bulk and process manually. See answer sheet.
If the salad prep can make 35 salads in 30 minutes, how many salads can he make in 4 hours?
280 salads in 4 hours
see answer sheet
If an employee works 8 hours a day, but it takes 4 unscheduled 15-minute breaks, what is his/her productivity?
see answer sheet
A hospital produces 600 meals per day. It takes 15 minutes to make 1 meal. How many FTEs would be needed for 1 week?
26.25 FTEs. See answer sheet.
Describe the formula for determining/estimating food cost percent.
Food cost % = food cost/ selling price x 100%
Describe the formula for labor cost percent.
Labor cost % = [labor cost/sales] x 100
When there are changes being made in the kitchen, when is the best time to involve the employees?
In the beginning. "never keep employees in the dark about changes."
Name the shelf life of canned goods.
"Throw out all canned goods over 1 year"
Define A.P. and E.P. when purchasing foods.
A.P. is the actual purchase of the food item. E.P. is the edible portion of the food item.
"A head of lettuce weighs 1.5 lbs. when purchased (A.P.) but after cleaning only 1 lb. is actually able to use during preparation (E.P.)."
Describe the difference between physical and perpetual inventory.
Physical inventory is an actual count of the inventory, either on a daily, weekly or monthly basis.
Perpetual inventory is keeping running count of the inventory as each item is received or removed.
With perpetual inventory it is necessary to keep track of pilfering and waste.
What is used to determine food cost?
-Food cost percent
-Cost of raw food
Not included = indirect costs; i.e. electricity and utilities.
Describe how foods should be stored in the refrigerator.
Top shelves= cooked foods, ready made foods.
Middle shelves= fresh foods, vegetables and fruits
Bottom shelves= raw and thawing meats
If you are unsure that food is safe, what should you do?
Throw it out. "When in doubt or even slightest chance of food contamination, always discard it."
Describe batch cooking and its advantages.
Cooking food in small batches throughout service rather than all at once before service begins. Advantages: enhances quality, reduces waste.
Compare and contrast aluminum vs. stainless steel.
Both are excellent metals for use in the kitchen equipment. Aluminum costs less and is best used for portable equipment. Stainless steel does not stain and is best used for work tables and counter tops.
What material is best suited for floors in a kitchen?
Clay or quarry tiles as they are easy to clean and do not allow for as much skidding.
Name the advantages and disadvantages of modular equipment in the kitchen.
Advantages: customizes the kitchen to specific needs and gives it a unique look.
Disadvantages: more difficult to replace and usually more expensive.
Name the piece of equipment that may be outlawed by local law but superceded by state law.
Hot foods should be served at what temperature?
140 degrees F or greater
Describe the procedure for sanitizing with cleaning agents.
Sanitizers should be chlorine, iodine or ammonia based products. Procedure= 50ppm sanitizer at 75 degrees F for 60 seconds.
Ammonia sanitizing should not be used with hard water because it negates the effect.
Describe the convenience system of production.
Foods are purchased to be assembly-serve, open-serve, etc. The advantage is that it reduces cost of labor. However, food cost increases.
Describe conventional system of production.
The product is made and served on-site. The disadvantage is that there is an uneven work distribution (peaks and valleys).
Describe the Formal Bid Technique in purchasing.
Sealed bids are sent with written specifications and price quotes within a certain time frame by the vendors. Usually the lowest bid accepted by the buyer.
Define "a la carte" on a menu.
Each menu item is separately priced.
If 4 people work 40 hours each and 3 people work 20 hours each, how many FTEs does this equal?
See answer sheet
If the budget is based on 5.5 FTEs at an average of $20.00/hour, what is the annual labor budget?
$228,000 labor budget
see answer sheet
Brownies have a 75% acceptance rate. The census is 450. If 90% of the patients choose their menu, how many brownies will you need?
304 people will select brownies.
See answer sheet
If the break-even point increases, what happens to the profits?
Profits decrease if your break even point increases because it is costing more to produce the same amount of product.
Describe an FTE
FTE= 1 full time equivalent (usually 40 hours). "1 full time relief employee can work for 2 1/2 people"
Describe the difference between fixed costs and variable costs:
Fixed costs do not change with sale volume; i.e. utilities.
Variable costs change with the fluctuation in sales volume; i.e. food cost.
Flat bottomed cooking unit that can be used as a kettle, grill, oven, fry pan, steamer, and warmer-server
What should be the first thing to do when a fire starts?
Set off the fire alarm system
Name the recommended temperature for freezing.
-10-0 degrees F. Zero degrees is the minimum required; however, -10 degrees F is recommended.
Name the correct temperature for refrigeration.
32-45 degrees F. 36-40 degrees F for dairy products. Dairy is not required to be stored separately but can absorb odors of other foods.
What must be altered if the consistency of food is altered?
the serving size must be altered to yield similar nutrient values.
What is the ABC Analysis in inventory control?
The most costly items are categorized as "A" and need careful control. "B" items are less costly while "C" items are least costly and require minimum priority.
Steaks are "A", canned beans are "C"
When should a meat slicer be sanitized?
After each use or every 2 hours of continuous use to prevent the development and spread of food borne illness.
When serving sack lunches, what is the most important consideration?
Be sure all foods are stable and won't spoil or become unsafe in by sitting in the danger zone too long.
"Tuna salad is a bad choice, while peanut butter is a better choice."
What is the term for the measure of thickness of metal?
Gauge. The smaller the gauge, the thicker the metal.
When do you replace a piece of equipment?
When the maintenance bill exceeds the original purchase cost. "Always replace bulging steam jacketed kettles and dull slicer blades."
What is the aisle width requirement in the kitchen to allow two people to pass?
60 inches or 5 feet
This allows for two-way traffic
Name the three temperature requirements of a dishwashing machine.
Wash= 150-165 degrees F
Rinse= 180-210 degrees F
Chemical Sanitize= not less than 75 degrees F
What is most important in planning freezer/refrigerator space?
The frequency of delivery of goods and supplies.
Name the danger zone of foods per Serv safe Essentials.
41-125 degrees F over 4 hours
Describes the commissary system of production.
Production occurs at a central site and is then transported to the satellite units.
"Food safety is a major concern."
Name the advantages of using standardized recipes.
Control of: -cost of the product; -quantity of the product; -quality of the product; -inventory of the institution
Define specification of a product.
A detailed list of characteristics that is desired when purchasing a product.
Name three important aspects of menu planning and serving.
You are to cook chili and need to make 100, 1/2 c. servings. The recipe calls for 25 1/2 lbs of ground beef. You have 15 lbs in stock. The cost of the meat is $2.89/lb. How much more meat should you purchase?
10.5 lbs. needs to be purchased
9 pounds of meat was purchased, it has a 65% yield. How many 5-oz. servings will you get?
18.72 or 18 servings
see answer sheet
If the deck oven costs $9,000, is supposed to last 6 years and has a salvage value of $500, what is its annual depreciation?
$1,416.60 annual depreciation.
See answer sheet
Using a #12 scoop, how many servings would be in 5 gallons of coleslaw?
see answer sheet
For 25, 2 oz. servings, how many pounds of bacon with 20% loss need to be purchased?
see answer sheet
Inventory on Sept. 1 was $12,585. Inventory on Sept. 30 was $5,861. Food purchases for the month were $35,124 and total meals served equaled 120,000. What is the cost of goods sold? What is the cost per meal?
34.9 cents/meal see answer sheet
Define the breakeven point:
Fixed cost/ 1(variable cost/sales)
Sales volume necessary to generate a zero balance or the point where sales and cost are equal.
Describe the formula to determine selling price.
Selling price = food cost/food cost %
Describe the difference between non-selective and selective menus.
Non-selective menu offers no choice; everyone receives the same menu. (Best for smaller facilities).
Selective menu offers several items; increases customer satisfaction. (Larger facilities can usually offer this).
What should always be done first when an employee gets hurt?
Seek medical attention and fill out the "incident" report.
Approximately how many 1/2 cup servings are in a #10 can?
Each #10 can weighs approx. 6.5 lbs.
6.5x16 oz = 104 oz. 104oz/4oz in 1/2 cups = 26.5 oz or approx. 25 servings
Name the purpose of the central ingredient control room.
Controlling costs is the primary function.
Quality and quantity controls are added benefits.
Describe the American Disabilities Act.
A law requiring accommodations of handicapped employees unless undue hardship.
What must be done each day to maintain the dish machine?
Empty, breakdown and clean the dish machine daily.
Name an advantage of buffet style of service.
Buffet style is the most labor efficient.
Define HACCP and explain its role.
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
Its role is to develop critical control points in food preparation to help minimize food borne illness.
What do these symbols represent on a fire extinguisher? (Triangle, square, circle)
Triangle or A= wood, paper, rags and ordinary combustion.
Square or B = gas, grease, oil, paint or other flammable liquids.
Circle or C = electrical equipment and electrical fires.
Describe the term Halon.
A multi-purpose dry chemical used in fire extinguishers. This can be used for all types of fires.
Name the purpose of the wetting agent in dishwashing.
Helps to penetrate soil on dishes.
(Hot water and drying agents assist with shortening drying time).
Name the advantage of a convection oven over a conduction oven:
Convection ovens require less cooking time, lowered temperatures and the product is more evenly cooked due to the circulating air flow.
Name the temperature requirements of manual washing in a triple-sink:
Sink 1= 110 degrees F
sink 2= 140 degrees F
sink 3= 170 degrees F
Describe a scramble system and name an advantage:
Hollow square with separate units of food vending. This allows for the quickest flow of traffic and less waiting in line.
Name the function of the National Sanitation foundation (NSF):
To establish minimum sanitation standards for manufacturing equipment that can be cleaned and sanitized safely.
Describe the ready foods system of production:
Foods are prepared ahead of time and either frozen or chilled for use at a later time.
This reduces the uneven work (Peaks and valleys) during production.
Describe a purchase order, invoice, and requisition.
Purchase order: what the buyer orders.
Invoice: What the vendor says they are delivering at the time of delivery.
Requisition: What is requested from the storeroom to be used in production.
Sieve number is a specification in ordering the size of these vegetables:
Peas and green beans are indicated by size using the sieve number
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