Test that measures the amount of creatinine in the serum. Creatinine is an end product of protein and muscle metabolism.
Function and analysis of creatinine
Levels reflect glomerular filtration rate.
Renal dz is the only pathological condition that increases the serum creatinine level.
Serum creatinine level increases only when at least 50% of renal func. is lost.
Normal lab values- 0.6-1.3mg/dL
Determination of BUN Level
BUN is a byproduct of protein metabolism in the liver.
BUN levels indicate the extent of renal clearance of urea nitrogenous waste products.
An elevation does not alway mean that renal disease is present.
When BUN and Creatinine levels inc at the same rate + ration and remains constant, then renal dysfunction is the cause.
Normal BUN values- 8 to 25mg/dL
A urine test for evaluation of renal system and for determining renal disease
Nurses must- wash perineal area and use a clean container for collection, obtain 10-15mL of first morning voiding
Menstruating is fine- just put a note on bag.
Specific gravity determination
Can be measured by a multiple test dipstick methods( refractor)
Cold specimens- false reading
Normal value- 1.016-1.022
Inc specific gravity- occurs w/ insufficient fluid intake, dec renal perfusion, or inc. ADH
Urine culture sensitivity testing
A urine test that identifies the presence of microorganisms and determines the specific antibiotics to treat to treat those critters.
Nurses must- clean the perineal area and urinary meatus with a bacteriostatic solution.
Collect midstream sample in a sterile container- sample must be sent immediately.
Identify any sources of potential contamination- hands, hair, clothing, vaginal or rectal secretions.
Urine to dilute- too much drinking H20- too dilute to produce a + culture
Cystocopy and biospy
The bladder mucosa is a examined for inflammation, calculi, or tumors by means of cystoscope, a sample for biopsy may be contained.
Nurses must- obtain informed consent, if biopsy is planned- w/hold food and fluids after midnight at the night before the test.
If a cystoscopy alone is planned, no special preparation is necessary and the procedure may be performed in the physician's office. Pt may have inc. fluid intake
Post Op interventions for Cystocopy
Monitor VS, inc fluid intake, Monitor I/Os, encourage deep-breathing to relieve bladder spasms, administer analgesics as prescribed, sitz or tub baths for back+ abdominal pain, Leg cramps are common bc of litotomy position in procedure, assess urine/color, burning pink=tinged or tea colored urine, and frequency are common. BRIGHT RED URINE OR CLOTS- notify physician.
Insertion of a needle into the kidney to obtain a sample of tissue for examination usually done percutaneously.