epithelial layer of cytotrophoblast cells Outermost membrane of the placenta from trophoblast
What is the amnion
sourrounds the fetus and containing fulid compartment (amniotic fluid) from inner cell mass
Where do the CNS and PNS develop from?
CNS is neural tube itself PNS is neural crest cells migrating form neural tube
Neural tube begins and ends on what days?
18 to 28
What features of the body are derived from teh Neural crest
facial skeleton, teeth, jaw almost all of the peripheral nervous system
NC cells tidbit
The axial level of the placement of the NC cell determines what it forms. The cell itself does not predetermine what it forms. NC cells are initially multipotent and their fate depends on interactions along migration path
Wnt and BMP role in NC cells
express both Wnt and BMP to maintain stemness Wnt alone sends cell toward neural differentiation
List common neural tube defects
anancephaly --- no brain spina bifida --- spine... and serious handicaps cleft palate --- smile train
Folate roles in (B9)
4 mg/day showed 72% reduction in NT disorders CAREFUL --- high levels of folate mask B12 deficiency >>>>>> just add 400 micrograms of vitamins perday
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