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The female ___ (reproductive cell maker) is the __ and is a __ gland
it makes both an ___ product (__ or __)
and an ___ product (__).
__ glands make hormones and dump them directly into the local__.
These chemicals next travel into the local capillary beds, then the venules, and into the general circulation.
Putting hormones into the total bloodstream, where all cells will see it, may seem wasteful and sloppy.
However, hormones work in extremely tiny quantities, so the energy spent in making them is __.
Only cells with the proper membrane protein receptors will bind to a particular hormone, so control is precise.
The ovary is lumpy because it contains thousands of immature eggs, in hollow chambers called ___
One follicle matures each 29-day menstrual cycle and ruptures to release its ovum - this is called ___.
The wall of the empty follicle produces __and becomes a yellow mass called the __ __.
This is a temporary __ gland and produces, from the cholesterol, the steroid hormone ___.
This name means that progesterone is the “proceed with gestation” hormone.
Progesterone lands on uterine receptors and signals the uterus to thicken its lining, the __.
This is to get the endometrium ready for an egg to burrow in, just in case that egg is fertilized.
If no implantation occurs, i.e. the egg is not fertilized, the corpus luteum will die in about __ days.
Each corpus luteum death leaves a tiny scar, so an ovary records the number of all its ovulations.
But let’s continue with the story of the ovulated ovum, and pretend that it is destined to be fertilized.
The __ __ next must receive the ovulated egg to convey it to the uterus.
But the tip of the fallopian tube, also called the __ __, does not adhere to the margins of the ovary.
This means that the egg popping out of the ovary could float around freely in the abdominal cavity.
If the fimbriae aren’t successful, the sperm can swim into the abdominal cavity and start a pregnancy there.
Any such “out of place” pregnancy is termed an __ pregnancy
Then, fertilization (assuming sperm are present) occurs at the widest bulge in the tube, the ___.
The fertilized egg, or ___, then passes through the narrowest part of the tube to reach the uterus.
However if there is scarring of the tube here, the zygote will be blocked, and stay in the fallopian tube.
This type of ectopic pregnancy is termed a ___pregnancy, and is always fatal to the zygote.
If things go okay, the zygote then then burrows (implants) into the endometrium -- it is now an ___.
The term embryo is used for about the first __months, and then fetus until birth.
Implantation often causes a little bleeding, because the endometrium has many blood-filled sinuses.
The new human produces ___ membranes, including the __ (the “bag of waters”) and the __.
All these membranes will become parts of the ___ – the embryo, not the mother, makes the placenta.
The placenta exchanges nutrition and O2 and wastes with the blood in the maternal endometrial sinuses.
This is done by diffusion, osmosis, and membrane proteins -- the ___ themselves do not mix.
However many harmful things are not screened out by the placental membranes, including alcohol,
The baby-to-endometrium umbilical cord is 2 umbilical ___spiraling around a larger umbilical ___
The chorion produces a hormone, ___ which the ovary is responsive to.
HCG keeps the ___ __ alive, which keeps making progesterone, which keeps the ___alive.
After 2 months the ___ itself takes over the corpus luteum’s role in producing progesterone.
**The placenta even secretes a chemical that makes the fetus invisible to the mother’s ___ system.
If there is no fertilization/implantation, the lack of HCG produces a spasm of the endometrial arterioles.
As this lining dies and falls off, the resulting flow of blood is called a __ __.
Birth control pills use ___ to fool the body that it has already ovulated (not that it is pregnant).
This of course prevents ovulation – so a woman on the pill has fewer scars on her ovaries
Pregnancy test kits use ___ against HCG to detect HCG spillover into urine, which takes __days.
Since these kits detect a product of a fetal membrane occurring only after implantation, they imply pregnancy
Pregnancy/Gestation is about 38 weeks, but is usually figured by Ob/Gyns as 40 weeks after the___.
This is because the last menstrual period is a time that mother and doctor can be sure about.
The doctor does NOT want to be wrong about the “dates” of conception and thus be surprised by labor.
Labor is stimulated both by fetal and maternal hormonal increases, especially of fetal pituitary ___.
Under its influence, very strong and wavelike uterine contractions began to push the baby out.
The way out of the uterus requires going past its narrow inferior tip, the___, into the vagina.
The ___, the “door to the uterus,” must stay shut for 9 months to keep the baby from falling out.
Yet it must also open really wide, or __, to __cm – and also completely thin out, or __, its lower edge.
Pushing against an incompletely dilated cervix just results in exhaustion of the mother.
Pushing against an incompletely effaced cervical edge can result in its tearing.
A cervix that won’t hold the baby in for a full term is called ___ and may have to be stitched up.
A cervix that does not soften for labor is unripe and maybe treated with ___ to relax it.
As the baby's head attempts to exit, the edge of the vagina may turn white from compressing its blood away.
A cut (episiotomy) into the ___ and vagina may be done to prevent large, deep tears in this tissue.
The perineum’s front edge is the external genitalia (___), its rear edge is the ___.
When stitched, a clean cut may heal better than a jagged tear – but episiotomies are a little controversial.
After delivery (___), the post-partum woman delivers the afterbirth -- the placenta with its cord.
The scar the cord leaves behind on baby’s abdominal wall is called the umbilicus (‘bellybutton” or navel).
____ (aspirating amniotic fluid abdominally) provides shed fetal skin cells floating in amniotic fluid.
__ __ __ a biopsy of the placenta via the vagina, provides cells of the fetus’ chorion.
Cells then get a chromosome count (karyotype) to detect Down syndrome/Trisomy 21 and other abnormalities.
In US women,__ __ is the commonest cancer (_ in _) and the __cause of cancer death.
Most breast cancers are of the __ ducts, beginning as ductal carcinoma in situ and progressing to invasive.
___ was formerly the only option but recently lumpectomy has been shown to work as well for many.
__% of breast cancer is due to having 2 copies of the __ gene.
___ Cancer is usually undetected until there is a large mass, because there is no screening test for it.
Often detected when one can no longer urinate because of blocked ureters, it is the ___ cancer killer of women.
___ Cancer is a painless squamous cell carcinoma that can spread to the uterus and adjacent organs.
A Pap smear may detect an initial, shallow, easily removed dysplasia, which can turn into carcinoma in situ.
(An Ob/Gyn gets a Pap smear with a speculum and cervical brush for a pathologist to view.)
These early changes are easily removed with lasers, freezing, punch, electrical shock, etc.
In situ may later spread as an invasive carcinoma - __% of US women eventually develop invasive carcinoma.
From dysplasia to invasive cancer takes ~___years; cancer has a __ 5-yr survival if Stage I but ___ if IV.
Most cervical cancer is caused by HPV; Gardasil is a vaccine that prevents the most common forms.
___ is the endometrium overgrowing into the tubes, onto the ovaries, and even onto the peritoneum.
It is to some extent in __ of all women and is a common cause of abdominal pain and sometimes bleeding. The growth, linked to hormone cycle, may cause adhesions as inflamed organs stick together during healing. Tmt is with hormone therapy or, if severe, laparoscopic laser treatment is performed to incinerate the excess.
The maker of sex cells and hormone in males is the ___, in an exterior sac called the ___.
The scrotum is outside the abdominal cavity to stay ___ cooler for proper sperm maturation.It rises and falls to adjust its temperature, so tight underwear, or a high fever, can temporarily sterilize
Each testicle is packed with tightly coiled __ __, the actual sperm factories.
Sperm are developed from cells on the inner tubule wall and dropped into the ___ when ready.
Meanwhile, the spaces between tubules contain the interstitial ___ cells making ___.
All this piping dumps into the 20-foot-long coiled ___ seen capping the external testis.
Traveling a foot a day along this pipe, sperm become more and more motile and fertile.
Ejaculation causes epididymal smooth muscle to kick its sperm into the ___ __.
The muscular vas then propels the invisibly small dot of 250 million sperm into the ___.
Cutting the vas is a table-top operation called a ____.
The ___ __ (arteries, veins, nerves, and the vas) passes deep to the _ _.
Thus males are prone to inguinal __ since this cord weakens the integrity of that barrier.
The ___, a porous round organ surrounding the ___, contracts at, and is, the male orgasm.
At the base of the ___, it forces its fluid through the many holes in the urethra there.
It makes a whitish alkaline fluid to neutralize the bacterially-made pH4 of the vagina.
Prostate cancer is the male ___cancer killer.
Prostate cancer is very common but grows so slowly that most men die with it (usu. of an MI) not of it.
To treat an actively growing cancer, a prostatectomy, often causing incontinence and impotence, may be done.
A non-deadly condition called __ __ __causes urinary retention in older males.
__ __ __ __ destroys the excess tissue for better flow.
Frequently the ejaculatory nerves are cut and impotence results.
On the posterior bladder wall, a pair of __ __ also squeezes fluid into the prostatic urethra.
Their contribution, __ of seminal volume, is ___, a sugar that the sperm use for energy to swim.
Sperm store little cytoplasm or nutrients - light is fast is the next generation.
All together, testicular sperm plus prostatic alkalinity plus vesicular sugar is called __.
The remainder of the urethra, in the ventral portion of the penis, is surrounded by the __ __.
The expanded tip of this is called the __ __.
There is loose skin forming an external cuff (prepuce or ___) over the glans, and making ___.
Removal of this skin is called circumcision.
Having a foreskin is an important risk factor for STDs and for penile cancer.
Dorsally, the twin __ __ are connective tissue, smooth muscle, and blood-filled sinuses.
They trap blood (the erection) by expanding their deep arteries, which compresses the superficial veins.
Thus humans can make no true hermaphrodites, because such important bits of the female disappear in becoming the male.
Because testosterone is so important in the embryo, any trace of it will masculinize a genetic female, and any lack of it will prevent full genital development in a genetic male. For example, a pregnant woman may ingest medicines or dietary supplements that have a testosterone-like or estrogen-like chemical structure, or there is a wildly overproductive adrenal gland. This may result in ambiguous genitalia, e.g. is this a little penis or a large clitoris.
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