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- California
- Mount St Marys School
- Health Care Organization And Policy
- Health Care Organization And Policy 462
- Me
- Research II 2nd lecture

Paula L.

IRB

Institutional Review Board

what principle is the IRB based off of?

Beneficence

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what is beneficence?

principle of maximizing benefits while minimizing risks of a stud7

what is the purpose of IRB?

To have a board in place to protect the rights of subjects participating in studies. Approval process for studies that ensures that research designs do not expose subjects to unnecessary risks.

the probability that harm occurring, as a result of participating in a study?

risk

what is minimal risk?

probability that the magnitude of harm anticipated by a study is no more than the normal level of risk associated with daily life performance or physical eams.

what are the 3 levels of IRB review?

-Exempt

-Expedited

-Full

-Expedited

-Full

in an expedited review by IRB, who reviews the application?

IRB chairperson

in a full IRB review who reviews the application?

the full IRB

what is the purpose of informed consent?

it ensures that the participant is knowledgable of the study and its contents and agrees to participate in the research

who is responsible for providing informed consent?

Principle investigator

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in order to have a valid informed consent, what must be provided?

subjects signed consent form

what does HIPPA stand for?

Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act of 1996

According to HIPPA in order for a researcher to review a subjects Personal health information, what must occur?

Researcher must obtain authorization from the subject to use PHI

T/F Occasionally, researchers my obtain a waiver of authorization if approved by the IRB

True

what is operationalization?

-a measurement of a construct in a study

-a way to measure an theoretical construct in a tangible manor

ex: finding a way to measure balance or flexibility

-a way to measure an theoretical construct in a tangible manor

ex: finding a way to measure balance or flexibility

how would you operationalize LE strength?

-MMT grade of various muscle groups

-performance on functional activities (sit to stand, walking)

-isokentic strength testing

-performance on functional activities (sit to stand, walking)

-isokentic strength testing

in what ways would you operationalize perceived health?

-General Health

-Physical functionality

-Mental functionality

-social functionality

-pain

-role functioning- emotional

-role functioning- physical

-vitality

-Physical functionality

-Mental functionality

-social functionality

-pain

-role functioning- emotional

-role functioning- physical

-vitality

This is an example of what type of percieved health... In general, how would you rate your health 1 poor, 2, 3, 4, 5 Excel

SF-36 General health measurement

are you limited alot, limited a little, not limited at all for the following activities: (list activities)? this is an ex of

SF-36 Physical Functioning Measurement

what are the 2 levels of measurement types of data?

-categorical

-continuous

-continuous

categorical measurement type

consists of categories

continuous measurement type

data has a continuous uninterrupted range of values

T/F the type of data collected determines the type of statistical analysis conducted

True

Categorical Data consists of what 2 types of data?

-nominal

-ordinal

-ordinal

Nominal Categorical Data

a categorical data where the order of categories is arbitrary

Ordinal Categorical Data

categorical data where there is a logical order

Race/ethnicity is what type of data?

Nominal categorical data

Income brackets is a type of what data?

Ordinal categorical data

what are the 2 types of continuous data?

-Interval

-Ratio

-Ratio

Interval Continuous Data

-actual distance or difference b/w successive value is defined in measured units.

-ratio of different values does NOT have a clear interpretion

-ratio of different values does NOT have a clear interpretion

Ratio Continuous Data

-continuous data ration where both difference and ratios are interpreted because a 0 value indicates absence of the characteristic

Blood Pressure is an example of what data type?

Interval continuous data

pain is an example of what type of data?

ratio continuous data

what type of data is: Age: 0,1,2,3..etc

Ratio continuous data

what type of data is: Age 0-9, 9-19, 20-29

Ordinal categorical data

what type of data is: Median Family Income

Ratio continuous data

what type of data is: Median Family Income- <$9,999, $10,000-19,000 ...etc

Ordinal Categorical Data

what type of data is Systolic BP

Interval continuous data

what type of data is health rating: E, VG, G, F, P

Ordinal categorical data

what type of data is race/ethnicity?

nominal categorical data

what is statistics used for?

-data analysis and interpretation

-used in design of research proposals

-reporting data

-used in design of research proposals

-reporting data

what is the first statistic run when analyzing data?

descriptive statistics

what is descriptive statistics?

-used to characterize the shape, central tendency and variability of the data

-run each variable one at at time

-run each variable one at at time

what type of statistical analysis runs each variable one at a time to get an idea of what the variables look like?

descriptive statistics

Chi Square analysis

-to determine association b/w two categorical variables

-run 2 at a time to find relationships

-run 2 at a time to find relationships

what statistical analysis runs 2 categorical variables at a time to determine relationships?

Chi Square analysis

T-Test analysis

-to compare the means between two groups to find relationships

what type of statistical analysis compares continuous data (means) 2 variables to find relationships?

T-Test analysis

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

-TO COMPARE THE MEANS OF MORE THAN 2 GROUPS

what statistical analysis compares the means of 2 or more groups?

ANOVA

Multiple Regression

-to explore relationships b/w multiple groups or variables

ex: ordinary least squares regression, logistic regression

ex: ordinary least squares regression, logistic regression

what statistical analysis explores relationships b/w multiple groups or variables?

Multiple Regressions

T/F statistical analysis starts more complex and moves to simplification

False - starts simple, gets more complex

Parametric Test

-used for continuous data b/c data are normally distributed

what are 2 types of Parametric Tests?

-T-test

-ANOVA

-ANOVA

Non-parametric tests

-used for categorical data b/c not based on normally distributed data

what type is a NON-paramentric test

Chi Square

Frequencies, Percentages, Cumulative Percentages are used to analyze what types of data?

Categorical data

Mean, Median, Mode, standard Deviation, Variance are used to analyze what types of data?

Continuos data

what is used to determine the association b/w two categorical variables?

Chi Square test

what determines if a distribution of observed frequencies differs from theoretical expected frequencies?

Chi Square test

Chi Square Calculation

x^2= sum (O-E)^2/E

x^2= sum (O-E)^2/E

O= observed frequency

E= Expected value

-look up results in table by degrees of freedom to find probablity

E= Expected value

-look up results in table by degrees of freedom to find probablity

Degrees of freedom

= (rows -1) x (columns -1)

how do you find p-value

look up p-value in table, by looking up pi^2 value + degrees of freedom

T-Test for continuous variables

Ho = mean 1 = mean 2

Ha = the meas are not equal (2-tailed)

-compute T statistic (formula)

-look up in table using degrees of freedom

-reject Ho in favor of Ha if p< cut off of p

Ha = the meas are not equal (2-tailed)

-compute T statistic (formula)

-look up in table using degrees of freedom

-reject Ho in favor of Ha if p< cut off of p

ANOVA analysis of continuous variables

-statistical test for 1-way ANOVA

Ho - mean 1 = mean 2 = ... meanx

Ha = the means are not equal

-compute F statistics

-look up in table using degrees of freedom

-reject Ho if favor Ha if p< cut off p

Ho - mean 1 = mean 2 = ... meanx

Ha = the means are not equal

-compute F statistics

-look up in table using degrees of freedom

-reject Ho if favor Ha if p< cut off p

Multivariable Regression purpose

to determine a predictive relationship b/w an independent and dependent variable

how to conduct multiple regression analysis

dependent variable = independent variable

F= independent variable

y = dependent variable

*looks at how depended variable (y) relates to independent variable (f)

F= independent variable

y = dependent variable

*looks at how depended variable (y) relates to independent variable (f)

if data is continuous then you use what type of multiple regression analysis

ordinary least squares multiple regression

if the data is categorical, then you use what type of multiple regression?

logical regression

mental status (age and gender variables) is an ex of what type of data and what type of multiple regression would you use?

-continuous data

-ordinary leads square multivariable regression

-ordinary leads square multivariable regression

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