What is the concept of falsification in the context of scientific investigation?
Falsification refers to the general scientific principle that scientific investigations should be designed to show that the current hypothesis is wrong. By looking for evidence that we're wrong, we can be more sure that such evidence will be found if it exists
What is one advantage and one disadvantage of doing case studies?
The major advantageof case studies is that they allow us to examine even very rare events in great detail. The major disadvantage is one of generalizability—we can’t really tell if the results of a case study are characteristic of other individuals or not.
How is naturalistic observation done?
In conducting a naturalistic observation, investigators observe real world conditions while attempting to avoid disrupting or altering them as much as possible.
What is the difference between positive and negative correlations?
In a positive correlation, the two variables go together - as one variable increases in value, so does the other. In a negative correlation, the two go opposite directions - as one variable increases in value, the other decreases.
What range of values can correlations take? What correlational value would mean that two variables were not related to each other at all?
Correlations range from 1 to -1. A correlation of zero means that the two variables aren't related at all.
Why can't we make casual claims from correlational data?
Although causal events are generally correlated, a correlation between events does not imply causation. Instead of variable A causing B, it’s possible variable B causes A (the directionality problem). It’s also possible that a third variable causes both other variables (the third variable problem).