The health care provider performs a thoracentesis on a patient with a right pleural effusion. In preparing the patient for the procedure, the nurse positions the patient
The upright position with the arms supported increases lung expansion, allows fluid to collect at the lung bases, and expands the intercostal space so that access to the pleural space is easier. The other positions would increase the work of breathing for the patient and make it more difficult for the health care provider performing the thoracentesis.
A patient is admitted with a metabolic acidosis of unknown origin. Based on this diagnosis, the nurse would expect the patient to have
Kussmaul’s (deep and rapid) respirations are a compensatory mechanism for metabolic acidosis. Slow, shallow respirations, a low oxygen saturation rate, and a decrease in PVO2 would not be caused by acidosis.
A patient who has a 30-pack-year history of smoking asks the nurse, “How does smoking really harm my lungs?” The nurse’s response will be based on the effect of smoking on
Smoking decreases ciliary action and the ability of the mucociliary clearance system to trap particles and move them out of the lung. The cough/gag reflexes, reflex bronchoconstriction, and filtration of air by the nasal hairs are not affected by smoking.
An 80-year-old patient breathing room air has an ABG analysis. The nurse interprets which results as normal?
All the values in this answer are correct. The answer beginning “pH 7.32, PaO2 85 mm Hg” shows respiratory acidosis. The answer beginning “pH 7.48, PaO2 90 mm Hg” indicates respiratory alkalosis, and the answer beginning “pH 7.52, PaO2 91 mm Hg” shows metabolic alkalosis.
A patient with COPD is admitted to the hospital with dyspnea and a cough producing yellow sputum. When palpating the patient’s thorax, the nurse will expect to find that chest expansion is
Chronic lung hyperinflation, such as occurs in COPD, decreases expansion of the lungs with inspiration. Lung expansion is usually symmetrical with emphysema.
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