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a. be unable to speak normally
b. would be called a laryngectomy patient
c. would have to develop esophageal speech
d. would not be able to smell normally
All statements are TRUE
Detergent like substance that keep the alveoli from collapsing between breaths b-cuz it reduces the surface tension of the water film in the alveoli?
6. Which one of the items below most determines the direction of gas movement?
9. By what exchange mechanism are oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged in the lungs and through cell
10. How is most oxygen carried in the blood?
13. What happens to a person holding its breath as long as possible?
14. Which blood component listed below is of no vital physiological significance, under normal circumstances?
15. Damage to which organ/organs would result in cessation of breathing?
16. The bulk of carbon dioxide in the blood is carried?
17. What is Boyle’s law?
18. Your chest expands as a result of? Can you complete this statement?
19. As you descent from the trachea down through the bronchial tree toward the lungs?
-the cartilage rings are decrease #'s
-the mucosal epithelium thins & changes from pseudostratified columnar to columnar epithelium
- cilia becomes less dense &less mucous cells appear
-amount of smooth muscle increases resulting in greater bronchoconstriction potential
20. What is the purpose of the open (non cartilage) area of the C-shaped cartilage of the trachea?
21. What part of the respiratory tree controls the amount of resistance to airflow and distribution of air in the lungs?
22. What is the medical term used to describe abnormally low concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood?
23. What happens to the intra-pulmonary pressure (pressure in the lung alveoli) when the lungs contract or recoil during expiration?
24. What happens to the intra-pleural pressure during normal inhalation?
How is most carbon dioxide transported in venous blood from the tissue where it originates to the alveoli of the lung?Apprxt 70% of carbon dioxide absorbed by blood from tissue is transported?
27. The apneustic centers of the pons?
28. Which structure below does NOT provide chemoreceptor stimulation to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata?
29. How would classify sneezing and coughing reflexes?
protective & irritant respiratory reflexes
30. What is the sympathomimetic effect to the smooth muscle tissue layer of the bronchioles?
31. If the respiration rate is 15 breaths per minute and the tidal volume is 500 ml of air, what is the respiratory minute volume? Do you know how to calculate this?
32. Why is gas exchange at the respiratory membrane so efficient?
33. What primary physiological adjustment is necessary for an athlete to compete at high altitude?
An increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood, causes chemoreceptors to stimulate the respiratory centers? what is the ultimate outcome due to high CO2?
What are the largest air passages that engage in gas exchange with blood? Do you know the respiratory zone exchange anatomy?
The respiratory bronchioles are the largest air passages that engage in gas exchange with blood. They are the start of the respiratory or exchange zone
Respiratory arrest would most likely result from a tumor or stroke of what vital part of the brain?Where are vital reflexes controlled?
Which of these values would normally be the highest?
The vital capacity would normally be the highest. Do you know what the vital capacity is?
Check out your lab manual or text for the definition
What is the proper term used to describe the enzymatic breakdown of large molecules into their basic building blocks?
What is the term used to describe the outer membrane layer of the digestive tract organs that secretes transudate or serous fluid
Name the digestive process & mechanism that propels materials from one portion of the digestive tract to another?
What is the term used to describe the double sheets of peritoneum that provide support and stability for the organs of the peritoneal cavity?
The “mesenteries” is the term used to describe the double sheets of peritoneum that provide support and stability for the organs of the peritoneal cavity
Name the specific peritoneal folds or mesentaries that stabilize and support the small intestine?
The mesentery proper are the specific peritoneal folds or mesentaries that stabilize and support the small intestine
Name the specific cells of the gastric mucosa that secretes pepsinogen involved in protein digestion in the stomach?
Name the hormone that stimulates the secretion of the stomach HCl & pepsinogen and stimulates the contraction of the stomach wall?
Can you list the essential metabolic or synthetic functions provided by the liver?
Name the digestive hormone secreted by the g-cells of the stomach that stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and stimulates the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes into the duodenum?
Name the three longitudinal bands of smooth muscle found on the outer surface of the colon that are responsible for controlling peristalsis?
The final enzymatic steps in the digestive process are accomplished by?
Brush border enzymes of the microvilli of the jejunum are the final enzymatic steps in the digestive process
If the lingual frenulum is too restrictive, an individual?
Where is the lingual frenulum & what does it do?
What autonomic nervous system stimulation results in increased secretion by all the salivary glands?
The peritoneal cavity?
-is similar to the abdominopelvic cavity
-is filled with digestive organs
-like the pleural cavity and pericardial cavities, forms a space containing serous fluid as a lubricant-contains the liver and pancreas
The action of a digestive enzyme is influenced by?
a. chemical surroundings
b. its specific substrate
c. the presence of needed cofactors or coenzymes
d. its concentration
ALL ARE CORECT
The parasympathetic nervous system influences digestion by?
by stimulating peristalsis and secretory activity
Name the vitamin associated with calcium absorption in the small intestine?
In what part of the gastro-intestinal tract are the active forms of cholecystokinin, chymotrypsin, and trypsin converted from zymogens?
Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine?
What is the function of the gallbladder?
A protein molecule ingested in the food will be digested by enzymes secreted by the pancreas, small intestine, and stomach . protein digestion first begins in the stomach and is completed in the small intestine
A protein molecule ingested in the food must be digested before it can be transported to and utilized by cells because?
A protein molecule ingested in the food must be digested before it can be transported to & utilized by cells because a protein is too large a molecule to be absorbed in its complete molecular state
The products of protein digestion (amino acids) enter the blood stream through cells lining what part of the GIT?
In what of the GIT are amino acids absorbed into the blood?
Before the blood carrying the products of protein, carbohydrate & fat digestion reaches the heart, it first passes through specialized portal capillary networks in what major metabolic organ for detoxification?
Do you know the correct order of the movement of digestive materials through the GIT sphincters?
Name the reflex caused by Gastrin, a hormone secreted in the stomach, that forces food, meal and bacteria into the cecum from the ileum?
The portion of the intestinal tract responsible for water absorption, absorption of electrolytes and vitamins, and evacuation of food residues?
First part of the large intestine?
Inflammation of the stomach?
Inflammation of the small intestine?
Phase of respiration involving movement of air into and out of the lungs?
Phase of respiration involving exchange of gases between the external environment and the pulmonary capillaries?
Phase of respiration involving the exchange of gases in systemic capillaries?
Another name for the pharyngeal tonsils which when infected, causes a blockage of the eustacean or auditory tube?
What is the primary reason for removal of the palatine tonsils following repeated inflammation?
Name the anatomical structure that houses the vocal cords (voice box) and is the common site for removal in patients suffering from throat cancer caused by smoking?
The condition of inflammation of the pleura and pleural cavity of the lung which causes extreme pain or pleuresy during inspiration?
A membrane zone in alveoli consisting of alveolar epithelium and pulmonary capillary endothelium separated by a basement membrane, which allows the passage of O2 and CO2?
Type of pressure of gases inside the alveoli of the lungs that changes with various phases of breathing?
Type of pressure within the pleural cavity that fluctuates during breathing but is always less than the intrapulmonary pressure?
A condition where by air enters the pleural cavity caused by an open chest wound causing collapse of a lung?
Another name for collapse of a lung?
Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions?
Name for un-oxygen bound hemoglobin?
Under normal conditions, what is the hemoglobin percent saturated with oxygen in the pulmonary arterioles?
Under normal conditions, what is the hemoglobin percent saturated with oxygen in the pulmonary venuoles?
In blood entering tissues at the systemic capillary level, what is the usual hemoglobin saturation percentage?
Name the general condition that occurs when hemoglobin saturation falls below 75% resulting in inadequate amounts of oxygen delivered to tissue?
Name the specific condition where there is not enough oxygen delivered to tissue as a result of too few red blood cells or not enough hemoglobin?
Most carbon dioxide is transported in the blood from tissue to lungs as part of what ion?
The respiratory & metabolic condition resulting from free hydrogen ion release into the plasma during carbon dioxide dissociation, lowering blood pH is?
What nerve runs from the pons in the medulla to the diaphragm which stimulates this muscle causing contraction and inspiration?
What muscles are primarily responsible for expiration?
A condition that is a part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by permanent enlargement, stretching and destruction of alveoli resulting in active expiration is called?
A condition resulting from excessive mucous production in the lower respiratory passages that causes severe impairment of ventilation and gas exchange, and cyanosis is?
Chronic Bronchitis - COPD
A specific digestive movement process, due to longitudinal muscle contraction, which move different parts of the intestine wall over food particles is called?
Another cavity name for the abdominopelvic or abdominal cavity is the?
Specialized veins that collect nutrients from digestive viscera and carry the nutrients to the liver for processing is called the?
Name the part of the permanent tooth that is the central area beneath the neck&crown that contains the soft tissue structurE,nerves, blood vessels &connective tissue?
The involuntary phase of swallowing or deglutination that is controlled by the swallowing center in the medulla and pons is called the?
The part of the stomach that is the terminal area where the stomach empties into the duodenum is called the?
Bicarbonate rich mucous producing glands specific to the duodenum that neutralize acid chyme from the stomach is called?
The common bile duct and pancreatic duct empty into which part of the small intestine?
Name the fan shaped double layered extension of the peritoneum to which the jejunum and ileum are attached?
Name the cells of the liver sinusoids that filter venous blood from the hepatic portal system and remove debris from the blood?
Name the liver cells lined up in plate format that produce bile, store glucose, use amino acids to make protein, process blood borne nutrients, stores fat soluble vitamins and detoxifies wastes &Dugs?
Name the pigment produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder, & Metabolized to urobilinogen by small intestine bacteria, that give feces its color?
Name the hormone released by the small intestine that stimulates the release of bile from the gall bladder and the release of pancreatic juices from the pancreas?
Name the substances that are caused by crystallation of cholesterol in the bile that cause extreme pain in the right thoracic area?
Inflammation of the liver often due to either a bacterial or viral infection?
Diffuse and progressive chronic inflammation of the liver, commonly resulting from long term alcohol intake?
A yellowish colored skin or sclera of eyes from increased bile in the blood, caused by a blocked bile duct, liver disease, over production of bile, or excess breakdown of hemoglobin?
The active form of pancreatic enzyme that digests fats in the small intestine?
Parasympathetic stimulation of this cranial nerve causes the release of pancreatic juices into the small intestine during digestion?
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