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Animal Physiology (Loose Leaf), Second Edition
concentration cannot simply be used to determine the direction of gas flow, especially in gas~aqueous situation. What is used instead?
Universal Gas Law
PV = nRT
How is partial pressure & concentration in aqueous solution related?
P*A = C
A: absorption coeff.
What determine the solubility of a certain gas?
chemical property of
1. the gas
Increase in what decreases solubility?
Two ways to transport gas?
diffusion & convection
When crossing a thin membrane, how are O2 and CO2 handled?
1. O2: diffusion
2. CO2: diffusion & active transport
Decrease in oxygen partial pressure from air --> alveolar --> arterial blood --> systemic capillary blood --> mitochondria
Three forms of breathing organs?
2. external gills
3. internal gills
The ultimate reason why different creatures have different respiratory organs?
Rate of O2 uptake depends on ?
1. flow rate
2. efficiency of exchange
two types of convective transport?
1. unidirectional flow
2. tidal flow
Adaptations to increase efficiency of gas exchange? (diffusion)
Pattern of ventilation is generated by?
Central Pattern Generator in medulla oblongata
CPG's primary goal is to maintain?
Partial pressure of O2 & CO2 in aveolar gases
Which gas is the body most sensitive to? how?
1. CO2 / H+
2. chemoreceptor in medulla
What sense O2 levels? Where is the signals sent to? what drop in O2 is need?
1. Carotid & Aortic bodies
2. medulla which regulates both rate and depth of breathing
3. big drop (7-8kPa)
Proteins that contain metal Iron
How does O2 bind to Hb? (chemical nature of the bond)
How can we tell the binding of O2 to Hb is cooperative?
1 = no coop
6 = high coop
typical mammalian: 2.5-3
Coop is important for?
O2 loading and unloading
Which one has higher affinity to O2? Hb or Mb?
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