HSTAM 402 3.10.09 Results of the Peloponnesian War Short term ? 404 Athens Subject ally of Sparta ? didn?t become part of Peloponnesian league, agreed to not agree with Spartans Garrison ? Sparta put standing army inside Athens Navy ? Athens had to reduce down to fleet of 12 ships Long Walls ? had to be destroyed 30 tyrants ? chosen by birth, usually had conservative point of view, to establish this structure institutions and those who supported these institutions had to be lost Executions ? killed those who supported institutions and would not conform to tyranny 3000 aristoi citizens only 300 in Athens ? everyone else was excluded from living inside where the polis had originally been Thrasybulus at Phyle ? formed camp in the territory of Attica ? where more and more people came to settle who had been kicked out of Athens Spartan king?s reconciliation: 403 ?tyrants to Eleusis? ? wanted compromise between democracy and extreme oligarchy Spartan government was removed from center of Athens, there are now two locations of power Moderates take over ? property was confiscated in original polis, owners executed Thrasybulus takes Athens: by 400 single polis Interlude: Socrates 469-399 represents significant time Athens - doubling of strength, enterprises, population, and then downturns at Pericles? death, plague Citizenship ? work to better the polis, participate in government by lot to fill certain positions, serve on juries, serve in military In 399 law courts were reinstituted Outcome ? Socrates is executed ? law courts are reestablished Socrates was charged by the jurors for corrupting youth His life as a citizen could have influenced this ? he refused to participate in execution of someone he did not believe was guilty His life, his death (Alcibiades, Critias, THE CLOUDS (a play of a philosopher who teaches people to make the worst cause seem the better one and how to make a persuasive case), Anytus) Sparta and Peloponnesian League Spartans decided they were the true victors and began ongoing struggle for the empire Former allies were convinced Sparta was becoming new major enemy Thebes joined with Argos, Corinth, and Athens to form new alliance against Spartans Persia Persian king brought together representatives and guaranteed peace between all kings ? did this by using overwhelming power Longer term changes for Greece Polis? ? tragedy for the polis, Peloponnesian Wars followed by Corinthian Wars is a tragedy for the resources and economy, tragedy for the potential of Greek world ? Democracy without empire? ? defective form, semi-professional politicians took over, citizen militia ? became economic way of life, Nature of Warfare? - Beliefs? Tragedy: of the polis, of life and resources, of potential for Greece, in formal sense On-going struggle for Empire Macedonia Philip I: 360-336, Polis ? city End of Classical Greece 404-362 or 359 Immediate: results of Peloponnesian War Athens ? subject ally until 396/5 Sparta ? too complete victory Inability to manage empire Means of managing empire 395 quadruple alliance, start of Corinthian War 387 King?s Peace and enforcer ? Sparta Second Round ? 387-371 Thebes (Pelopidas & Epaminondas) Athens ? second empire from 378 Thessaly (under Jason) 371 ? reaffirmation of King?s Peace and Leuctra Third Round Coalition of Sparta, Athens, Achaea vs. Thebes by 363 362 Mantinea, general peace Broad changes Shift from polis perspective Withdrawal of citizen participation Effective power NOT Greek
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