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a psychological response to demands that possess certainstakes for the person and that tax or exceed the person’s capacity or resources
is a strong sense that the amount of time you have to do atask is just not quite enough
refers to a lack of information about what needs to be donein a role as well as unpredictability regarding the consequences of performancein that role
refers to the nature of the obligations that a person hastoward others.
is a special form of role conflict in which the demands of awork role hinder the fulfillment of the demands of a family role (o viceversa).
refer to the time that a person commits to participate in anarray of family activities and responsibilities
activities include participation in formal educationprograms, music lessons, sports-related training, hobby-related self-education,participation in local government, or volunteer work
are sources of non-work challenge stressors
refers to the behaviors and thoughts that people use tomanage both the stressful demands they face and the emotions associated withthose stressful demands
involves the set of physical activities that are used todeal with a stressful situation
Includes: Working harder, Seeking assistance, acquiring additional resources
refers to behaviors and cognitions intended to manage thestressful situation itself – facing the problem/demand instead of attempting toavoid it
refers to the help that people receive when they’reconfronted with stressful demands
refers to the help people receive in addressing theemotional distress that accompanies stressful demands
gives employees theopportunity to take time off from work to engage in an alternative activity
help employees manageand balance the demands that exist in the different roles they have
is defined as the belief that a person has the capabilitiesneeded to execute the behaviors required for task success
Self-actualization –the need to perform tasks that one cares about and that appeal to one’s idealsand sense of purpose
views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity andpersistence of effort
goals are defined as the objective or aim of an action and typically refer toattaining a specific standard of proficiency, often within a specified timelimit
some person who seems to provide an intuitive frame ofreference for judging equity
refer to comparison others in the same company
captures the value of a work goal or purpose, relative to aperson’s own ideals and passions
means that a person’s personality traits include a generalpropensity to trust others
defined as the belief that the authority wants to do goodfor the trustor, apart from any selfish or profit-centered motives. When authorities are perceived asbenevolent, it means that they care for employees, are concerned about theirwell-being, and feel a sense of loyalty to them.
is defined as the perception that the authority adheres to aset of values and principles that the trust of finds acceptable. When authorities have integrity, theyare of sound character – they have good intentions and strong moraldiscipline. Integrity also conveysan alignment between words and deeds – a sense that authorities keep theirpromises.
are procedures basedon accurate information?
occurs when former or current employees expose illegal orimmoral actions by their organization
A model of ethical decision making argues that ethical behaviorsresult from a multistage sequence beginning with moral awareness, continuing onto moral judgment, then to moral intent, and ultimately to ethical behavior.
occurs when an authority recognizes that a moral issue existsin a situation or that an ethical code or principle is relevant to thecircumstance
How near (in apsychological or physical sense) is the authority to those who will be affected?
reflects the degree to which employees can devote theirattention to work, as opposed to “covering their backside,” “playing politics,”and “keeping an eye on the boss.”
refers to the process of generating and choosing from a setof alternatives to solve a problem
refers to the knowledge and skills that distinguish expertsfrom novices and less experienced people
occurs when an unwanted outcome is removed following adesired behavior. Removal of sometasks or responsibilities specifically because of good performance at anotheraspect of a job would be an example of negative reinforcement.
the timing of when the contingencies are applied
are designed to reinforce behavior at more random points intime
focuses on demonstrating a person’s competence so thatothers think favorably of them
can be described as emotionally charged judgments that arisethrough quick, non-conscious, and holistic associations.
implement the alternative
holds that people identify themselves by the groups to whichthey belong and perceive and judge others by their group memberships.
occurs when assumptions are made about others on the basisof their membership in a social group
the tendency to judgethe same probability of an unlikely event as lower when the probability ispresented in the form of a ratio of smaller rather than of larger numbers.
argues that people have a tendency to judge others’behaviors as due to internal factors.
occurs when we attribute our own failures to external factorsand our own successes to internal factors
represents a systematic effort by organizations tofacilitate the learning of job-related knowledge and behavior
is when older, experienced workers pass on their knowledgeto younger employees
occurs when the knowledge, skills, and behaviors used on thelob are maintained by the learner once training ends and generalized to theworkplace once the learner returns to the job
requires the highest level of interaction and coordinationamong members as they try to accomplish work. Each member has a great deal of discretion interms of what they do and with how they interact in the course of thecollaboration involved in accomplishing the team’s work.
a pattern of behavior that a person is expected to displayin a given context. In a teamsetting, there are a variety of roles that members can take or develop in thecourse of interacting with one another, and depending on the specificsituation, the presence or absence of members who possess these roles may havea strong impact on team effectiveness.
behaviors that benefit the individual at the expense of theteam. For example, the aggressor“puts down” or deflates fellow teammates. The recognition seeker takes credit for team successes. The dominator manipulates teammates toacquire control and power.
tasks with an objectively verifiable best solution, wherethe member who possesses the highest level of the ability relevant to the taskwill have the most influence on the effectiveness of the team.
tasks for which the team’s performance depends on theabilities of the “weakest link”
extra effort is focused on integrating work, when memberswork to accomplish their own tasks and also coordinate their activities withthe activities of their teammates. It consumes time and energy that could otherwise be devoted to taskactivity
occurs when members have to wait on one another before theycan do their part of the team task.
a loss in team productivity that occurs when team membersdon’t work as hard as they could.
the interpersonal activities that facilitate theaccomplishment of the team’s work but do not directly involve taskaccomplishment itself. These arethe behaviors that create the setting or context in which task work can becarried out.
teamwork activities that focus on preparation for futurework
the drive toward conformity at the expense of other teampriorities; in highly cohesive teams, members may try to maintain harmony bystriving toward consensus on issues without ever offering, seeking, orseriously considering alternative viewpoints and perspectives.
refers to thedegree to which members believe that the team can be effective across a varietyof situations and tasks. When ateam has high potency, members are confident that their team can perform well,and as a consequence, they focus more of their energy on team tasks andteamwork in hopes of achieving team goals.
competences are the knowledge, skills, and abilitiesdeveloped during training relating to teamwork activities
involves team members observing how other members performtheir roles
gives members actual experience carrying out theresponsibilities of their teammates
occurs in the context of a team experience that facilitatesthe team being able to function and perform more effectively as an intact unit
where a team is given a real problem that’s relevant to theorganization and then held accountable for analyzing the problem, developing anaction plan, and finally carrying out the action plan.
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