HDFS 363: Exam 2 Review (lectures 15-28) FALL 2008 Lecture 15 - Emergent Adulthood, Work and Career Planning Emergent Adulthood: Guest Pearl Wu There are different criteria that mark entry into adulthood: demographic, subjective, identity and behavioral distinctions for this period The influence of culture: in China, control of emotions is an important marker of adulthood Work and vocation Where do our ideas about work come from? (vicarious learning, our early successes, successes of our parents, etc.) Is working a good thing for teens? (mixed findings) Vocational Choice in Early Adulthood: Guest Amber Pyne Developmental approach: Donald Super?s ?Lifespan career tasks? (growth, exploration period, establishment period, etc.) John Holland?s idea of the ?match? between person and job (realistic, conventional, social, etc) Lecture 16 ? "Personality development? What is "personality"? dispositional trait models ?OCEAN? Typological Approach: (over-controlled, under-controlled, ego-resilient) Identity continues to develop Normative Crisis or Stage Approach Carl Jung (masculine & feminine elements) Helson: femininity score peaks in mid- to late 20?s (Mills College study) Erik Erikson: intimacy versus isolation Daniel Levinson ?seasons? of life; gender and cohort differences Cross cultural differences: e.g. the optimal stages for Hindi men (Zimmer study) The "Timing of events" approach Social clock Lecture 17 - "Relationships in early adulthood" (Part 1) Evolutionary or ?Sexual Strategies? Theory Social Exchange Theory (matching, looking for mate with qualities of equal social value) "FILTERING" process: propinquity, homogamy, physical attractiveness Attachment theory & Internal Working Models John Lee?s STYLE of loving (an earlier description that shows some parallels to attachment theory) (popular version that came before AT) Lecture 18 - Young adult relationships ? (Part 2) Halo effect Sternberg?s Triangular View of Love 3 components and types Friendships: unique qualities, differences and similarities between men and women?s friendships Dating: functions, what predicts lasting relationship Cohabitation: different types of POSSLQ?s; does it help stabilize marriage? Same-Sex committed relationships: relationship quality, power balance, social and legal barriers Lecture 19-Relationship violence General prevalence of domestic violence Types of relationship violence- ?common couple violence? versus ?patriarchal terrorism? Myths and Risk Factors for domestic violence Common characteristics of male batterers ?Power and Control? wheel: The "cycle of violence? : six different phases** Why victims stay Lecture 20 - Marriage and marital satisfaction Changes in the timing of marriage Sources of tension and common problems Communication Styles of Men and Women Ways to study couple relationships Conflict and Intimacy in Marital Relationships: Guest Lecturer Kristin Linney Signs of poor quality relationship: Gottman?s ?4-horsemen?, long chains of negativity in conversation (?tit for tat?- if youre mean, then ill be mean) What ?Intimacy? is Lecture 21 Young adult family relationships The Transition to Parenthood Family Life Cycle 8 stages, each stage has couple stresses/issues (build around ppl from 1800s) Trend for satisfaction in marriage across the lifespan How and why this ?classic? cycle has changed (ex. stage ?0?, longer empty nest stage, recycling with a diff person) Parenting Transition to parenting has changed: more likely a conscious choice today Advantages and disadvantages to having children Immediate stresses on new parents Factors that influence this transition: Child characteristics, personal resources, and satisfaction in marriage Becoming a parent through adoption Lecture 22- Community Support of Parenting Where new parents receive information of parenting? From each other From their own mothers From their pediatricians From internet (a safe, non-judgmental forum) Changes of the social context of parenting Fewer adults per household Fewer children* Greater residential mobility Higher employment of parents Mass media- internet Dr. Dave Riley segment: Belsky?s model of influence on parenting Quality of parenting is influenced by Parent?s personal characteristic (how parents were raised and were modeled) Most important- good personal characteristics/good social context = high quality parenting/successful development (no matter the child?s characteristics) Children?s characteristics (easy or difficult temperament) Least important Social context and community kin network non relatives in the community (neighbor, religious group, child care) social institution (parental leave, child care in work place, park) Social blueprint for child rearing- culture (values and norms of your society) Parental Leave policies In the U.S., about 6 in 10 mothers of infants under age 1 are in the labor force. According to research, parents tend to suffer more job stress than do non-parents. Researchers have suggested that the first weeks of an infant?s life require a period of total involvement and pre-occupation by parents, to learn to be attentive to the infant?s communicative signals, and to bond. Disruption of this time is associated with depression, anxiety, and reduced interest in the child among parents. the Family and Medical Leave Act (1993) Grants up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave within the first year of childbirth Applies only to companies with more than 50 employees, and to employees who have worked 1250 hours in the last 12 months Parental leave policies in Europe have these impacts Decrease infant mortality Increase in the birthrate Keep more women in the workforce Change employers? views on fathering Family and Medical Leave Act in U.S. has had: little impact on the leave-taking behavior of fathers only a small impact on the average length of maternity leave. Contributing factors for parents maltreating their children: Unrealistic expectations- thinking kids could develop faster than they are and blaming them for it Social isolation Financial strain Other negative live events that cause stress- losing a job Social support helps prevent child abuse by providing: Someone to talk to, to release frustration Someone to leave the child with in emergency Someone to tell you you?re normal (Social comparison processes: ?Am I going crazy or is this normal?? ) Social control: communicating standards such as "don't hit or shake a baby" Providing ideas, resources, practical help Valuing of the role of parent Supporting your mental health and recreation What?s the process of these negative parenting behaviors? Lyons, Henly & Schuerman (2004) Financial Strain** Stress from Negative Life Events Depression ++ Negative Parenting Behaviors Support for fathers in their role Informal sources of support: from their wives and their own mothers. Many of the men were reluctant to seek formal support or outside help. Lecture 23-Balancing Work and Family in Young Adulthood The ?average? adult spends around the same number of hours each week on work and recreation activities. We spend slightly less on household tasks (including childcare). What did anthropologists find about ?housework"? What does residue of the tradition continue modern America? In the traditional cultures, men were generally responsible for hunting, wood working, metal making, boat-building; while women were responsible for herb collection, water carrying, food preparation, repair of cloth, etc. American women continue to do more housework than men, even though they are also working outside the home (2/3 women are employed). In family life cycle, when is the greatest disparity on household work between man and woman? Women are likely to do more household work than men around the time that young children enter the household. Comparing two workers in 1870 and 1970 A worker started working at younger age, worked longer hours, and a longer number of years over a lifetime, yet earned less in 1870 than 1970. What are different expectations for jobs a worker has in 1950?s and in 2000?s In 1950s, expectations for work include: explore vocational possibilities; deciding on a lifelong occupation; getting the necessary vocational training establishing a permanent position (by age 25) Positions that were guaranteed ?secure? by employers or unions were the most desirable Changes of expectations for job During 2000?s: Job options appear and disappear quickly The work day is less often ?9 to 5? A flexible work force is desired by employers People are more willing to move for available work Vocational shifts are likely, and make it hard for young adult workers to plan a career for the whole life The majority of adult workers use computers on the job, most with recently written-programs The gap between those with and without ?knowledge and expertise? will widen Four theoretical perspectives of work-family interface Adult socialization theory (Melvin Kohn) Occupational conditions influence our beliefs, values, and child-rearing practices. Workers generalize lessons from work to other parts of the lives. Four theoretical perspectives of work-family interface Work stress spillover theory Any stress that individuals experience at work carries over to the other domains (roles) of life in the same individuals. (Factors that may exacerbate work stress spillover ? existing marital discord, child conduct problems, personality, etc.) Four theoretical perspectives of work-family interface Role strain perspective multiple roles inevitably leads to stress because of role overload: too much to handle role conflict: discrepant expectations (two diff types of people in one) Four theoretical perspectives of work-family interface Role enhancement perspective: The net benefits of being involved in a variety of roles outweighs the tensions due to role strain. Job satisfaction Job satisfaction increases with age. Older people generally have: more job security, higher wages, shaped the job to match their own skills/interests, made job the focus of their life, low expectations for job satisfaction common among their generation. Alienation & Burn-out Alienation is feeling disconnected from the product of your labor, a lack of ownership of the outcome Burn-out is depletion of energy, motivation; loss of occupational idealism; feeling that one is being exploited, or that one can?t accomplish anything on the job. wage gap across gender Possible reasons for the wage gap between men and women Illegal discrimination occupational crowding interrupted career paths glass ceiling- cant push thru to the top Lecture 24 ? Physical Changes at Midlife/Menopause What do we mean by ?normal?? Physical changes stem from Abuse-tobacco use Disuse-not use Unavoidable processes (natural aging processes) Physical changes at midlife You should review the general changes that occur in skin, hair and body build, sensory, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive and other organ systems and sexual life. The exam will test your understanding of terms, trends and concepts. (and look at the tb) What is menopause and hormone replacement therapy Menopause ? cessation of ovulation and menstruation ? signals the end of reproductive capacity. Do men have a similar experience? HRT-Treatment with artificial estrogen, sometimes in combination with the hormone progesterone, to relieve or prevent symptoms caused by decline in estrogen levels after menopause. What are the concerns? Why was the large sample study halted mid-stream? Causes of death in middle age for men and women? For men (in order) Cancer Cardiovascular Disease* Accidental trauma COPD Pneumonia & Influenza For women (in order) Cancer Cardiovascular Disease* COPD Pneumonia & Influenza Diabetes Lecture 25- Stress and Health at Midlife Variations in health at midlife are related to: Inherited vulnerabilities Healthy behaviors, and health care practices Social context factors like stress and poverty and exposure to prejudices Lecture 25- Stress and Health at Midlife What is stress? A ?stressor? is an event that brings change to our lives Stressors can be negative or positive events. Normative ? typical - experienced by many people Non-normative ? unusual, experienced by few people that we know. (harder to deal with, less social support bc less have experienced it) Normative stressors tend to be easier for us to cope with, because we feel more social support. Stressors that we can anticipate are usually easier to cope with than those we do not expect. Some Normative Stressors for People in their 40s Parenting teenagers Changing careers Changing family structures Feeling conflicting pressures Awareness of mortality Diminishing physical energy Normative stressors for people in their 50s Last child leaving the ?nest? Re-filled ?nest? Grand parenting Recognizing lost dreams Re-examining finances Learning how to focus on PEOPLE instead of possessions Acting on new values Selecting a few good friends Connection between stress and illness Prolonged stress DIRECTLY weakens the immune system, leading to physical illness Stress also may affect our health INDIRECTLY. We probably use maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking and drinking more, eating poorly, sleeping and exercising less, etc. Stressors at Work Too much to do, with not enough time Lack of control over our jobs New technology that we don?t understand Interpersonal relationships with co-workers The need to ?BE NICE? for long periods of time. Coping with stress Degree of social support The TYPE A personality Which personality characteristic might be problematic? Expressed hostility The ?Hardiness? cluster: ?I have some control!? = better resiliency viewing experiences as controllable commitment, rather than withdrawal; viewing problems as a challenge Genetic component? A simple model of coping with stress? Appraise Situation --? Evaluate Resources/ Constraints----> Choose Strategy | Evaluate if it is working Relationship between health, marital status, and socio-economic status Married couples tend to enjoy better health in middle age than do single people. In the US, people who are wealthier tend to live longer, and be freer from disease, than are people who are poor Two possible explanations for the correlation of marriage and health Selection hypothesis: People who get married are healthier to begin with Protection hypothesis: People with a partner get support and protection Why are SES and health related Higher SES usually involves better education, which is likely to bring more knowledge of healthy practices Evidence supporting this explanation: an increase in health as people are more and more educated; mortality rates are highest for those with the least education Why people in lower SES might have poorer health and higher rates of mortality Do less healthy people ?drift? downward into the lower class? Poorer access to health care? More negative, self-destructive behaviors in the lower classes? Greater stress, and fewer resources to cope with stress in the lower class? Lecture 26- Cognitive Development, Problem Solving, Creativity What are 6 primary mental abilities followed in the Seattle Study? What happens to these abilities in adulthood? Number = basic skills underlying one?s mathematical reasoning Word fluency = how easily one can produce a verbal description of things Verbal meaning = vocabulary ability Inductive reasoning = ability to extrapolate from particular facts, to general concepts Spatial orientation = ability to reason quickly in a three-dimensional world Perceptual speed = quick response to visual stimuli Longitudinal changes in six primary mental abilities Issues of different research methods in intelligence changes over lifespan Cohort effect- older cohort has better penmanship and math bc they didn?t have computers/calculators Selective (non random) loss of subjects in longitudinal methods Cross-sectional data differences Fluid intelligence Fluid intelligence The ability to solve novel problems that require little or no previous knowledge. Such as discovering the pattern in a sequence of figures, which involves perceiving relations, forming concepts, and drawing inferences. Crystallized intelligence Crystallized intelligence is the ability to remember and use information acquired over a lifetime. It is largely dependent on education and cultural background. It is measured by tests of vocabulary, general information, and responses to social situations and dilemmas. How do these change over the lifespan? Crystallized intelligence increases into old age. Fluid intelligence decreases starting at middle age. Expertise The development of advanced skills and knowledge in a particularly well-practiced activity May take 10 years or more to develop Task- or field-specific Common in middle age Common testing procedures and test items tend to put older people at a disadvantage, because they don?t focus on real-life problems: How does real life problems differ from lab test problems? Personal experience is more relevant. People are motivated to solve them Real life problems usually have more than one possible correct answer. Expertise: The difference between experts and novices Experts have a large body of knowledge in their field. Experts can process information more quickly, and store more information than novices can. Experts are particularly knowledgeable about the most critical information in the field, and have information cross-referenced Expertise may involve ENCAPSULATION of fluid and crystallized abilities, making it hard for experts to explain how they do what they do. Creativity The ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways, and to come up with unique solutions to problems. Divergent thinking Fluidity (volume and speed of idea generation) Flexibility/diversity of ideas Fueled by enthusiasm and experience Volume of creative output is highest in our 30s, but process becomes more refined and productive as people age ? older creative people produce less, but the quality of what they produce is consistently high. Peak age varies by discipline. Lecture 27-work,career and continuing education What are extrinsic and intrinsic rewards or work? What are changes for these two rewards in middle age? Characteristics By middle age, people tend to be motivated less by the extrinsic rewards of a job (the pay and benefits), and are more motivated by intrinsic rewards of working (e.g. participating in something meaningful). main sources of life satisfaction for middle aged workers Despite high levels of job satisfaction and job stability, both men and women report that being a good parent, spouse, or loyal friend is more important to them than being a good worker in middle age. Who are unemployed people? Were not classified as ?employed? during the survey reference week Made specific, active efforts to find a job during the previous 4 weeks Were available for work Were waiting to be called back to a job from which they had been temporarily laid off Devastating at this period How unemployment impacted physical and psychological health? Increase in high blood pressure, heart attack and stroke, headaches, stomach trouble Increase in anxiety, depression Declines in self-esteem Increased risk of suicide Indirect effects on relationships: separation and divorce are more common with unemployment in the household; problem behavior in children Older workers are more likely to become ?discouraged workers?: stop looking for work. What do people lose when they lose the job at midlife Loss of social status Loss of sense of collective purpose Loss of a way to structure our time* Loss of control* Why change the career at mid-stream Your expectations for a career today are typically higher than your great-grandfather?s expectations were. You may be a victim of corporate instability. You may sense you?re on a ?dead end?, or non-contingent career path. You may become interested in a new line of work. Donald Super?s 5 stages of occupational development- doesn?t describe people well in this day Implementation (early 20?s) Establishment (young adulthood) Maintenance (middle age) Deceleration (later middle age/early 60?s) Retirement How are older students like? They are more likely to be female. They are more likely to feel self-conscious, inadequate, or ?less smart?. They often have many role demands pulling on their time. They tend to take fewer credits per semester, and interrupt their education more often. What are different learning modes for middle-aged learners? They use a variety of means to learn ? not simply the ?formal? opportunities. They have a broad base of experience that they can use as a foundation for learning Learning tends to be an important part of their identity. They are more likely to be motivated by internal factors (e.g. ?wanting to know?, rather than ?grades?) They tend to be more self-directed. They seek immediate application of the knowledge that they?re gaining. Learning can be risky for middle-aged people. Adult learners usually have?. First-hand experience Set habits and strong tastes Tangible things to lose: cautiousness An established rational framework by which they make decisions A strong need to apply what they learn A need for ?creature comforts? in the setting Lecture 28-Personality Development at midlife and Midlife Crisis? Two broad models of personal development in adulthood Normative Crisis models Timing of Events models Generativity and Stagnation Generativity: Leaving something of value; assisting the next and future generation (biological, parental, work, and cultural generativity) Stagnation: A sense of inactivity or lifelessness ?Care? ? the virtue achieved From the ideas of Carl Jung: Increasing instrospectiveness Gender crossover? reversal of gender roles after the end of active parenting Midlife crisis? Women?s adjustment is often framed in terms of adjustment to menopause. What did the women in the interviews experience? In general, research does not support that midlife crisis is universal for men and women. While middle life is stressful for some, midlife review can yield new insights into oneself, spur midlife corrections, and inspire changes. What is social clock? Other peoples expectations for your development at a certain time or age What is subjective age? The age you feel (associate yourself with) Time left rather than time lived Women?s development Steward, Ostrove & Helson (1998) found changes in four aspects of women?s psychological lives. All of these INCREASED in middle age: Identity certainty Generativity Confident power Awareness of aging Ego-Resilience the characteristics of an ego-resilient adult include such thing as insight, warmth, social poise, dependability, valuing autonomy, initiating and responding to humor, etc. Approach to aging Lecture 28 According to Havighurst, developmental tasks for ages 30-60 are: Assisting teenage children in becoming responsible adults Fulfilling social and civic responsibility Reaching career peaks Developing leisure time activities (in prep for retirement) Relating to one?s spouse as a person (after kids are gone) Accepting physiological changes Adjusting to aging parents Lecture 28 Based on Peck, what are four adjustments of middle age? Valuing wisdom over physical power Socializing vs. sexualizing Emotional flexibility vs emotional impoverishment Mental flexibility vs. mental rigidity Lecture 28 Based on Carol Ryff, what are indicators of well-being? Self-acceptance Positive relations with others Autonomy Sense of environmental mastery Sense of purpose in life Embracing personal growth
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