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Review from Matering A&P
Review from Matering A&P
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A primary active transport process is one in which __________.
molecules move through transport proteins that have been activated by ATP
Some transport processes use transport proteins in the plasma membrane, but do not require ATP. This type of transport is known as _____.
The majority of water molecules moving across plasma membranes by osmosis do so via a process that is most similar to ____.
The sodium-potassium pump uses ATP to move sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This statement describes _____.
primary active transport
A vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to the extracellular fluid. This statement describes _____.
Why is the selective permeability of the plasma membrane essential for normal cell function?
Selective permeability allows cells to exclude some substances and allow others to pass into or out of the cell
What is the difference between active and passive transport across the plasma membrane?
Active transport is ATP dependent, whereas passive transport uses only the kinetic energy of the particles for movement across the plasma membrane.
If cells are placed in a hypertonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable, what could happen?
The cells will lose water and shrink.
The fluid that bathes the cells found in tissues is called:
Solutes, regardless of size, are able to move freely between compartments because water carries them along the osmotic gradients.
refers to ________
a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water
T/F: Water imbalance, in which output exceeds intake, causing an imbalance in body fluids, is termed dehydration.
Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between intracellular fluid (ICF) and extracellular fluid (ECF)?
mainly in ICF, Na
in the ECF
Extracellular fluid in the human body is composed of all of the following
cytosol (or cytoplasm)
The most abundant cation in extracellular fluid is _________.
Which is true if red blood cells are placed in a 500 mEq/L solution of NaCl?
RBCs shrink because water leaves the cells down its concentration gradient
Which of the following describes the plasma membrane?
the phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell
Passive membrane transport processes include ________.
movement of a substance down its concentration gradient
The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.
the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
What is the primary function of hormones?
alter cell activity
Hormones are long-distance chemical signals that travel in blood or lymph throughout the body.
The release of _____ encourages interstitial cells to release _____
luteinizing hormone; testosterone
Which of the following hormones stimulates the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?
A surge in _____ directly triggers ovulation
luteinizing hormone (LH)
During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle:
the endometrium prepares for implantation.
The primary function of the uterus is to ________.
receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum
Normally menstruation occurs when ________.
blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease
Which of the following phases or processes in the monthly reproductive cycle of the female occur simultaneously?
regression of the corpus luteum and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion
The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is insulin
T/F: Type 2 diabetics may reflect declining receptor sensitivity to insulin rather than decreased insulin production.
In _____ diabetes, target cells do not respond normally to insulin
In ____ diabetes, no insulin is produced.
In ____ diabetes, glucose levels remain higher than normal.
Type 1 and Type 2
Which of the following would be associated with the amino acid based-hormones?
extracellular receptors to which the hormone binds
FSH and LH
promote growth of the endometrium during the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle
The amount of testosterone and sperm produced by the testes is dependent on the influence of FSH alone.
A low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause ________.
decreased testosterone secretion
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