Review Session Exam 3 Lecture 1 Don?t have to know scientific names of ?Seeds of Change? -Quinine- healing for malaria, best investment of Dutch -Tea- Tea originated from China, traded with Europe and got addicted to opium -Sugarcane- Triangle of trade between Europe, Africa and the new world -Cotton-slavery, #1 industry in the Unites States, led to Civil War -Coca- cocaine, even today conflicts in South America over drug -Potato- potato blight and Great famine Root crops- charts and bar graphs -Recognize 80% of 6 species -Recognize top 10 as top producers Lecture 2 Genetic drift- percentage of gene pool ends up isolated from original population size Ecotypes- plants have different appearances, examples of ecotypes= forms of same species, growing in different environments Phenotypic plasticity- change because of environment Cline- differences in morphology down a geographic measure Macroevolution= large scale changes (ex. Million of years to see algae evolve into plants) (Do these changes happen slow and steady through time or big leaps?) Microevolution= smaller scale (ex. Formation of new species, whole new kingdoms= macro) Polyploidy- sympatric (?same homeland?-living together in same geographic area and able to interbreed) vs. allopatric (pop. Divided in 2, cannot interbreed or come into contact)= when we are dealing with microevolution -Polyploidy=sympatric speciation= some individuals become 4n some 6n, even though they are living side by side they can?t interbreed or one flowers In spring, one flowers in fall= can?t interbreed, but live in same area -Over generations- become different species Allopolyploidy- 2 species hybridize, didn?t just happen internally, another species involved Autopolyploidy- double chromosomes on your own Orchids- own research- won?t question on this!!! Date of Origin of Species- 1859, wrote most books on plants!! Lecture 3 Taxon -Taxonomy is study of plant names and classification -Any time we classify the organism and call something a group, that group is a taxon (a unit of classification ex. The maples are a taxon, slime molds are a taxon, dogs are a taxon)(could be a genus, family, order, kingdom- any level of hierarchy is a taxon) -Know how to publish a species name -Know hierarchy -Don?t need to know suffix (endings), know different endings correspond to different hierarchies Phonetics- overall similarity, how they look -But botanists realized things may look alike, but aren?t alike =Cladistics- instead of saying this is my opinion= use actual data -code absence or presence of certain data -parsamony- shortest= best answer, method to help design what best answer is given a set of data in building family trees -Different between taxonomy and systematics- taxonomy= naming and classifying and systematics is MUCH broader= whole diversity Monophyletic- Common ancestor and all descendents ?1 snip of scissors? Paraphyletic- Common ancestors, but not all the descendents ?2 snips? Polyphyletic- More than one ancestor ?more than 2 snips? Lecture 4 Prokatyotes -Blue/green algae= not true algae -Archaea= extreme environments, important to environment because they give us clues- hypothermic condition= hot condition; we see living things today that occurred in such extreme temperatures -Endospores- some bacteria like botulinum- exists at high temps. Lecture 5-Fungi -aseptate (hyphae with nuclei floating in common thread)= coenocytic -uni, di, multinucleate= can be divided with more than one nucleus -Clamp connections- basidiospores, will receive both nuclei (copy of white +black) Lecture 6- Protists and Algaea Info highlighted in boxes-know Knowing examples of Green Algae -Examples were used to show diversity, but would be fair to ask is any green algae filamentous What to know of plants? -Comparing green algae and plants -Know that hey are multi-cellular, autotrophic, cellulose, embryo, starch -Know definition of plant kingdom -Once talking about bryophytes not on exam There will be a diagram of life cycle labeled 1-8, will ask what happens at one number Alternations of generations Gen 1= gametophyte (n) to Gen 2- sporophyte (2n) ICBN- Do not have to know specific principles (not going to ask what is principle #1), but should know basic info Phragmoplast and Phycoplast -Phragmoplast is parallel to spindle fibers -Phycoplast- perpendicular to plate Furrowing -Combination of phragmoplast and furrowing (start to see new metaphase plate forming, forms new cell wall) Movie Lecture- posted summary
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