ANP 202 Exam Review Mitosis The process in which a eukaryotic cell (a cells that are complex structures with membranes) separates the chromosomes im the cell nucleus, into two identical sets in two daughter nuclei. Meiosis The process of reductional division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is halved. Stratrigraphy Refers to the layers of the earth and the order they are layed down, based on the super position principle (the layer that is laid down first is older than the one before it). Require stratia that represents a long period of time. The Scientific Method A logical procedure that is used to acquire knowledge, or correcting and intergrating previous knowledge. The basic steps of the Scientific Method are as follows: Observation Hypothesis/Alternative Hypothesis Use the Law of Parsimony/Make Hypothesis? simple and straightforward Test Hypothesis with new Data Conclusion Construct theory based on conclusion Theories are not beyond truth Theories are best explanation that we have so far, constantly reworked according to new data Fossil record The references for the phenomena of fossils being found in different layers of rock formations and sedimentary layers (stratia). This is used to measure the difference of time in when different life-forms lived Diurnal Refers to an animal that acts during the day time and rests at night Nocturnal Refers to an animal that acts during the night time and rests during the day Arboreal Generally used to define animals who spend a lot of time in bushes or trees. Comes from the latin word arbor, which means tree. Prehensile Refers to an appendage or organ that can hold or grasp objects. Human hands are prehensile, and numerous New World Monkeys have prehensile tails Evolution The scientific theory that change happens in the traits of the population of organisms from one generation till the next. First brought to culmination by Charles Darwin sexual dimorphism The systematic differences in form between males and females of the same species. Theory A general principle or body of principles offered to explain a phenomenon punctuated equilibrium Theory in evolutionary biology that sexually reproductive organism experience very little change during most of there geological history, but when evolution in there phenotypes (traits) occur, it is in specific and very rapid Homo sapien Latin scientific term for humans, part of the Homindae family. Primates The biological order that includes lemurs, lorids, monkeys, the ape family and humans. Word comes from Latin origins, means ?First Rank? Mechanisms of evolution (4) including Gene flow The transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another population. Can add Genetic drift The accumulation of purely random changes in relative abundancy of gene variants in a population. Changes are generally small and are fairly slow. Mutation A change in the nucleotide (structural unit in DNA, helps in metabolism) sequence of the genetic material of an organism. Cancer is considered a mutation. Natural selection The process by which favorable heritable traits become more common in a successive generations of a population of reproducing organisms, and favorable heritable traits become less common due to differential reproduction of genotypes (genetic constitution of cell, think Punnett squares.? Fields of anthropology (4): socio-cultural anthropology branch of anthropology that developed and promotes culture as a meaningful scientific concept, studies cultural variation among and across humans, and examin the global and economic impact of those people groups physical anthropology branch of anthropology that studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability/variation, and the fossil record of human evolution linguistic anthropology branch of anthropology that brings linguistic methods to bear on anthropological problems, linking the analysis of semiotic (study of signification and communication) and particularly linguistic forms and processes to the interpretation of sociocultural processes. Archaeology The science that studies human cultures through the recovery, documentation, analysis, and interpretation of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, features, biofacts, and landscapes Scientists Carl von Linne (Linnaeus) Swedish botanist, and zoologist who lade the foundation of the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature (formal naming of creatures and species). Also the father of taxonomy (formal classification of species).This was brought about by his HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systema_Naturae" \o "Systema Naturae" Systema Naturae book, which By the time it reached its 10th edition (1758), it classified 4,400 species of animals and 7,700 species of plants. Comte de Buffon French naturalist that laid the foundation for Darwin and Lamarck. Known for Historie Naturelle, a 44 volume encyclopedia describing everything known about the natural world, wrestled with the similarities of humans and apes. Erasmus Darwin was an English physician, natural philosopher who also laid foundations for C. Darwin to do work. Darwin's most important scientific work is Zo÷nomia (1794?1796), which contains a system of pathology, and a treatise on "generation", in which he, in the words of his famous grandson, Charles Robert Darwin, anticipated the views of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, who in turn is regarded to have foreshadowed the theory of evolution John Lamarck naturalist, academic and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. Lamarck stressed two main themes in his biological work. The first was that the environment gives rise to changes in animals. He cited examples of blindness in moles, the presence of teeth in mammals and the absence of teeth in birds as evidence of this principle. The second principle was that life was structured in an orderly manner and that many different parts of all bodies make it possible for the organic movements of animals. HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Lamarck" \l "cite_note-p160-24" \o "" Jacques de Perthes notable for his discovery, in about 1830, of flint tools in the gravels of the Somme valley. Charles Lyell a Scottish lawyer, geologist, and protagonist of uniformitarianism (that the earth was shaped entirely by slow-moving forces still in operation today, acting over a very long period of time.) From 1830 to 1833 his multi-volume Principles of Geology was published. The work's subtitle was "An attempt to explain the former changes of the Earth's surface by reference to causes now in operation", and this explains Lyell's impact on science. He drew his explanations from field studies conducted directly before he went to work on the founding geology text. Charles Darwin was an English naturalist who realised and demonstrated that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors through the process he called natural selection. Famous work was origin of species. Thomas Malthus analyzed population growth and noted the potential for populations to increase rapidly, and often faster than the food supply available to them. Commentators may refer to such a runaway scenario, as outlined in Malthus's treatise An Essay on the Principle of Population. Alfred Russel Wallace He is best known for independently proposing a theory of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_selection" \o "Natural selection" natural selection which prompted HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Darwin" \o "Charles Darwin" Charles Darwin to publish his own theory. Wallace was one of the leading HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution" \o "Evolution" evolutionary thinkers of the 19th century and made a number of other contributions to the development of evolutionary theory besides being co-discoverer of natural selection. These included the concept of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aposematism" \o "Aposematism" warning colouration in animals, and the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wallace_effect" \o "Wallace effect" Wallace effect , a hypothesis on how natural selection could contribute to HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speciation" \o "Speciation" speciation Altered vs. unaltered fossils Altered Similar or same structure to when the organisms were alive E.G tar pits, mummification. 1% of fossil record. Unaltered 99% of fossil record, fossils that are scattered bones that have been preserved differentially than its origin. The mineral deposits show us what was once there Dating techniques (relative and chronometric) Relative: Basic geological principles in which objects are placed around/relative to time period. Because these methods had a lackluster accuracy, Chronometric techniques were developed. Stratigraphy Refers to layers and the order they were laid down, based on super position principle, the bottom layer was laid first and is oldest. Requires stratia that represent a long period of time Fluorine dating Fluorine content are found in fossils and artifacts that gice it a relative idea of when something lived and died (fluorine is found in the ground Paleomagnetism study the ancient magnetic field by measuring the orientation of magnetic minerals in rocks and sediments, acquired at the time of their formation. Biostratigraphy Biostratigraphy is the branch of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratigraphy" \o "Stratigraphy" stratigraphy which focuses on correlating and assigning relative ages of rock HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratum" \o "Stratum" strata by using the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fossil" \o "Fossil" fossil assemblages contained within them. Usually the aim is correlation, demonstrating that a particular horizon in one geological section represents the same period of time as another horizon at some other section. Chronometric: Dating method that provides an actual age in years for a defined object, material, or event. Because all such dates are, in statistical terms estimates, the results are usually reported with a measure of probability, typically expressed as a standard deviation. Measured in B.P. (before present, present considered 1950) Radiocarbon C14 is absorbed by and organism throughout lifetime, and kept in equilibrium with C12. Ceases to absorb C14 (5,730 year halflife) when dies, measures up to 70,000 B.P. Potassium-Argon K( Ar, Lava that cools over time has this. Half life (1.3 billion years). Useful in dating things that lived a long, long time ago (500,000-( 3 billion years). Uniformitarianism vs. catastrophism Primate traits/ characteristics: vision, dentition, brain size, etc. Primate classification: Primate, Anthropoidea, Hominoidea, Honinidae, New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, prosimians, hominoids Scientific Method Law of independent assortment Background of evolutionary thought Earth History- long vs. short
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