31 BC Final War of the Roman Republic, beginning of the Roman Empire. Octavian's success over Mark Antony and Cleopatra allowed him to consolidate power over Rome and his dominions.
After fire built large indulgent palace complex on slopes of Palatine Hill -Inspired Renaissance artists -Name for overlaid gold leaf, stones and gems -Style named grotesque era -Complex of banqueting rooms, libraries, bath houses, gardens, terraces, fountains -Huge statue of Nero (120 ft) at entrance -Criticized for luxury and expansion while poor standards of living become worse-Other emperors make example, convert to public areas-Artificial lake- Vespasian drains and places colosseum-Hadrian converts to imperial bath complex
becomes emperor in 361, cousin of constantius II. believes in old gods not christianity. Didnt persecute them but made them give their land back that they took. Stabbed in back by his own christina soldier. Last non christian emperor.
Eldest son of Livia, third wife of Augustus
Married Julia in 11 BCE.
6 BCE, Tiberius was elevated in status above Agrippa's sons, Lucius and Gaius, however he refused, left Julia, and exiled himself to Rhodes.
4 CE, was adopted by Augustus as part of three candidates among Agrippa Postumus and Germanicus. Adopted Germanicus.
Shared a great deal of powers of Augustus, although transition wasn't smooth: Tiberius feigned reticence which annoyed Senate
Not well liked, partially because of writer Tacitus
-Served as a bridge between Europe and Asia -City water ways were perfect for trade
roman historian, gave account of constatine's vision of overthrowing the tyranny in Rome and winning the batle of Milvian bridge with jesus power
the plural form was commonly used by cicero to refer to leaders of roman state. when pompey first uses the singular form to refer to himself, foreshadows transition from republic to principate. augustus uses the word to modestly refer to himself as the leader of the roman state.
-Dual Emperor w/ Lucius Verus
-Born in Spain
-Parthian Expedition (165-166 CE), invaded Persia
-Marcomannic Wars (167- 180 CE), fights off Germans invading the Danube
the Unconquered Sun - monotheistic pagan belief popular during 4th century RE. Constantine was a believer in this before conversion to Christianity. His conversion not seen as too radical by most non-Christians at the time b/c this belief was already associated with Christianity by many pagans b/c Christians worshiped on Sunday and prayed toward the East.
was after Commodus, he murdered his brother because he was a threat to him, he overpaid his soldiers to make sure he staid in power, and he drained Rome's economy by paying bribes. He raised taxes to compensate. He was eventually assassinated. (198-217).
Caeser's grandnephew and heir
Caeser killed, Octavian joined with 2 of Caeser's followers to defeat murderers
Falling out between Octavian and followers
Octavian waged war on Antony and Cleopatra and won in 31 BC at Battle of Actium in Greece.
Named changed to Augustus in 31 BC by senate.
Restored peace in Rome
-ritual destruction of image or artifacts to erase memory of an individual who fell out of favor for political reasons. The Roman decree condemning those who ran afoul of the Senate. Those who suffered damnatio memoriae had their
memorials demolished and their names erased
from public inscriptions.
Leadership divided among four leaders
Instituted by Diocletian in 293
Marked the end of the Crisis of the Third Century
Lasted until Constantine split empire
lex de imperio Vespasiani
The premiere codification of the constitutional powers of the emperor occurred in 69 CE, after the Vespasian established himself as a lasting emperor. In referencing his popular predecessors, Vespasian claimed that the emperor was not beholden to Rome's constitutional laws because Augustus, Tiberius, and Claudius were not answerable to the law. This fabrication provided the emperor with immense power.
Zealots and Essense didn't like roman subjection. 1st rebellion: Josephus was the general commander who killed all his generals because he didn't want them to become enslaved by the Romans. He then surrenders to the Romans and becomes a collaborator, (chief counselor to Vespasian about how to deal with Jews) Rome sacked Jerusalem at 70 AD = fall of the temple. 2nd rebellion: resulted in the expulsion of Jews from Judea form and Jerusalem was leveled.
The Year of the Four Emperors
69AD: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian; 4 generals promoted by their armies after Nero's death; used coins to promote themselves; civil war abruptly; Vespasian takes control, promoted by Claudio-Julians for conquer of Judea
Constantine the Great
He abandoned the persecution policy and in 313 granted Christians the liberty to practice their religion. They met to find a compromise for the Trinity (the Father, Son, and holy spirit).
The change was relevant because it allowed for the uninhibited growth of Christianity in one of the largest Empires ever to exist. The far reaches of the Roman empire lead to a quick spread of Christianity.
-elected by Praetorian Guard
-fairly capable ruler
-he added 5 more provinces to the Empire
-Britain added to Empire in 43 CE
-Londinium aka London as Rome's capital in Britain
-Claudius's rule ended when his wife fed him poisonous mushrooms so Nero could be Emperor
- Coliseum; most famous architectural structure
- oval or circular building with rising tiers of seats about an open space
- were gladiatorial combats take place
- typical agenda: animal fighting in the morning, afternoon animal fights
- constructed by Emperor Vespasian - very proud, opening ceremonies 100 days
- extremely popular until earthquake damaged it in A.D. 846
After nearly five centuries of unopposed domination, Emperor Aurelian of Rome (270-275 AD) recognized the threat from Germanic tribes near the borders of the Roman Empire, and he decided it was time to build a wall to protect the city. The city had long outgrown its old Republican Wall, which was built in the 3rd century BC. Until the 3rd century AD, Rome's power was so strong that the city did not feel the need for a protective wall.
Rome, 4th C.
-last emp to rule over both eastern and western R.
-made Xity official religion - removed statue of Victory
-Sig: legacy for the papcy, catholicism, orthodoxy present still today
-On his death, two sons inherited each half: SPLIT
1st of 5 good emperors
Nominated by senate
Started tradition of adopting heirs
Altar of peace/ monument built between 13 and 9BC for Augustus's safe return from military campaign overseas/ motifs with sacrificial reference/ classical and symbolic marble enclosure wall/ one side shows procession of Roman senators and children with all eyes on a pious Augustus/ kids show importance of childbirth/ part of a tripartite architectural movement involving an obelisk nearby that cast a shadow to the Ara Pacis on Aug. bday
-introduced humane and just reforms, limits on the right of masters to torture their slaves to obtain evidence and the establishment of the principle that an accused person be innocent until proven guilty; during his reign the Empire remained peaceful and prosperous.
Council of Nicaea
who: Council of Christian bishops organized by Constantine
what: attaining consensus in a church
when: 325 AD
why: Its significant because it settled the Christological issue of the nature of the Son of God and his relationship to God the Father, the construction of the first part of the Creed of Nicaea, establishing uniform observance of the date of Easter.
Caligula (37-41 AD)
-nickname meaning "little boots" -father was a popular emperor and heir to Tiberius -trained to be a crazy ruler by Tiberius -cruel to his people -sex with his sisters
-put up a statue of himself in the Jewish Temple.
122-133 A.D. Came up with the construction of a wall made from stone. Parts of this wall still stands, 8-10 feet thick, 16 feet hight, and 17 miles long. There was a V-shaped ditch on each side to make things more difficult for attacks. It was 10 feet deep and 30 feet wide on both sides. They had observation towers on the wall. Soldiers could walk on the top with no problem.
Founded in 112 CE and completed in 112 ce, column in 113 CE contruscted because of the conquest of dacia and campaign trajans column-paid for by senate and roman citzens wealth, trajans campagin carved into the side of buildings 2 libraries Basicillia Ulpia- Trajans family name, used for legal proceedings, paid out of trajans pocket. distrubited largesses- gifts of wealth and money, space for formal ceremonies/ freeing slaves/ leaving records of who was rome citizen 2 exedra on either side of piazza
- Authorship is greatest disputed, but Paul
- written to Titus on Crete
- en route to "Nicopolis"; AD 65
- Purpose: straighten out what was left unfinished, appoint elders in every town
- Ptolemaic queen in Egypt
- Marries Mark Antony and given some of Herod's land
- romantically involved with Caesar at one point
- Commits suicide when returns to Egypt after losing Battle at Actium
The Political Crisis of the 3rd Century
There were 26 legitimate Roman emperors.
•Traditional means of regulating the succession (hereditary descent or adoption) were replaced by successive military juntas.
•Provincial generals used their armies as power bases from which to lay claim to the imperial throne.
•The new ‘barracks emperors’ spent little time in Rome and had little knowledge of or respect for Rome’s traditional institutions.
-division of goths, these were western goths
-nomadic tribe of germanic people
-put pressure on the roman empire's borders
-they were fleeing the huns and asked to stay within rome's borders, there was an issue and eventually Theodosius I allowed them to stay as foederati (one of the tribes bound by treaty who were neither roman colonies nor beneficiaries of roman citizenship but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose thus were allies)
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