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Art History 1720
Romanesque Period (Book Notes)
Romanesque Period (Book Notes)
Art History 1720
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The Romanesque period consisted of narrative and iconic ______ imagery in ______ ______ ______ ______.
figural; deeply carved ornamental frameworks
These frameworks were located around the entrances to ______ focusing attention on their compelling _______ complexes.
During the RP, Europe maintained an ______ society, with _____ the primary source of wealth and power.
In Feudalism, a land-owning _____ granted _____ and _____ to a subordinate called a _____.
lord; property and protection, a vassal
In return, the vassal pledged ____ and ______ to the lord.
allegiance; military service
Romanesque menas ...
"in the Roman manner"
During the RP, there was a veritable ______ boom! People wanted to rival each other and have the best _____.
Romanesque builders used _____ _____ whenever possible.
________ continued to sit at the center of European culture.
During the RP, there were 2 new cultural forces fostered by the churches:
______ is a religious way of life characterized by the practice of renouncing worldly pursuits to fully devote one's self to spiritual work.
Pilgrimages were trips to the holy places of __________.
______ were holy war against the Islamic South.
There were three crusades. Name the leaders of each one! (UBK)
1. Pope Urban II
2. St. Bernard
3. Multiple Kings
During the First Crusade, the church captured ________ and established ______.
Jerusalem; a short-lived kingdom
During the Second Crusade, __________.
the church accomplished nothing
What prompted the third crusade?
Islamic captured Jerusalem
During the Third Crusade, the Christians did not and did do what?
1. Did not capture Jerusalem
2. Did make a truce with muslims permitting Christians to access the shrines of Jerusalem
The Romanesque period was a period of great ______ activity in Europe.
"First Romanesque" was a term by _____ used to describe the early all-masontry stone-vaulted churches.
What is one of the finest examples of "First Romanesque"?
Church of Sant Vincenc
______ _____ is created by masonry strips that project from the piers and continue up and over the vault.
One major "stopping-point" of the pilgrimage was the Cathedral of ______ in Santiago.
______ ______ was the term for the model of functional planning and traffic control.
What is a lantern tower?
A structure built above the height of the main ceiling with windows that illuminate the space below
_____ has a special independent status and it's abbot answered directly to the pope in Rome.
Cluny was independent, wealthy and a center of _____ and _____; it was considered a ______ .
culture; learning; city unto itself
The hallmark of Cluny was its careful and elegant _____ that combined what?
design; the needs of the monks with the desires of pilgrims to visit shrines and relics
A relic is a _____ _____.
Cluny III was the third building at Cluny and...
the biggest church in Europe
The Cistercians shunned what?
Cluny's emphasis on the arts
The Cistercians advocated ____ mental and physical discipline and a life devoted to __ and ___.
strict; prayer and manual labor
The Cistercians secluded themselves in _____ and _____.
swamps and forests
Cistercian architecture was always _______.
What is the most preserved piece of Cistercian architecture?
Abbey of Fontenay
Cistercian architecture relied on ______ and ______, not elaborately carved and painted figural decoration to achieve beauty.
harmonious proportions; superbly refined stonework
Although _____ ____ are usually associated with Gothic architecture, they are actually common in the Romanesque buildings of some regions.
Pointed arches are structurally _________ than round ones.
Because Europe ______, Romanesque architecture reflects this regionalism in the wide variety of its style, traditions, and building techniques.
remained a land divided
________ competed for control of trade in the Western Mediterranean and built a new cathedral dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
At this new cathedral at Pisa (Tuscany) they introduced a new material that was very prominent. What was it?
What is a campanile?
a free-standing bell tower
What does spolia mean?
means pieces used from an older or destroyed building
The Benedictine Church of ___ _____ in Rome used Spolia.
What is a baldachin?
a canopy suspended over a sacred place
Romanesque artists suppressed __________ in favor of _____.
the sense of lifelike illusionism; ornamental patterns and schemes
Romanesque Paintings embodied _____ and ______.
energy; narrative vigor
________ dominated the arts in the Romanesque period.
Before the Romanesque period, architecture as art had been dormant for ______ years.
These innovative portals took the central messages of the Christian church out of the sanctuary and...
put them into public spaces of medieval towns.
What is a mandorla?
a body halo
Who sculpted "Creation and Fall of Adam and Eve"?
The ____ consisted of decorative scalloping, which may reveal influence of Islamic art.
Where would on find Trumeau?
@ Moissac in France
What two sins particularly preoccupied the 12st century moralists?
1. Avarice (greed and the hoarding of money)
2. Lust (sexual misconduct)
What was the most popular parable of Jesus in Romanesque art?
Lazarus and Dives
The wall sculpture of Lazarus and Dives would be an example of a ____ _____ __ ____.
sermon sculpted in stone.
The creation of lively narrative scenes within the geometric confines of capitals (called _______ _______) was in important Romanesque innovation in architectural sculpture.
Painted ____ was commonly used when abbey and parish churches of limited means commissioned statues.
it was cheap and light (significant because these images were frequently carried in processions)
______ sculpture was produced only for wealthy aristocratic and ecclesiastical patrons.
Any Romanesque image of Mary seated on a throne and holding the Christ Child on her lap is known as what?
The Throne of Wisdom
What is the oldest known bronze tomb effigy?
King Rudolph of Swabia
What is an effigy?
a portrait of the deceased
Artists in the 11th and 12th centuries were still often _____ and _____.
monks and nuns
Monks and nuns labored within monasteries as _____ and ______
Calligraphers and painters
What is the earliest known illustrated book?
The Worcester Chronicle; written by a monk named John
What does the Worcester Chronicle consists of?
illustrations of nightmares that the kind had, in which his subjects demanded tax relief
Why is it surprising to see the angry farmers depicted in the Worcester Chronicle?
because we seldom see working men with their equipment in paintings from this time
________ _____ played a key role in the transmission of artistic style from one region to another.
The Book of Homlies was written by a nun _____ in what country?
What does Homlies mean?
Guda's image is the earliest _____ _______ by a woman in western Europe.
The Cistercians were particularly devoted to ...
the Virgin Mary
The Cistercians were also credited with popularizing themes such as the ________.
Tree of Jesse
The Tree of Jesse was a theme used showing Mary's position as the last link in the genealogy connecting...
Jesus to King David
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