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1. Caillois defined “paidia” as play characterized by:
1. Which perspective of play argues that children re-experience threatening events to gain control and mastery over them so they are not so overwhelming?
1. When a person plays to test the environment, solve problems, and gain a sense of mastery and accomplishment, they are subscribing to what play theory?
1. ______ is based on the observation that both hum and animals constantly seek stimuli of various kinds to gain knowledge and to satisfy a need for excitement, risk, surprise, and pleasure.
1. Which view of leisure sees it as sharply contrasted with work, involving instead such pursuits as art, political debate, philosophical discussion, and learning in general?
1. Throughout history, classes of people have been identified by their leisure. Class oftentimes dictates what leisure people participate in. Which view of leisure is this?
1. The _______ view of leisure sees it essentially as time that is free from work or from such work related responsibilities as travel, study, or social involvements based on work.
1. Which approach to leisure would be the most closely related to recreation?
1. Joining a club is what type of recreation behavior?
1. Play contributes to personality development through fun, prompts self-expression, creativity, imagination, and self confidence.
1. During the feudal and Renaissance periods and finally during the Industrial Age, the possession and visible use of leisure became the hallmark of the upper class.
1. Discretionary time is time that is not used for work obligations and personal maintenance.
1. Thorstein Veblen described how ruling classes have identified themselves through the use of leisure throughout history. Consider how Veblen’s historical account is relevant to modern society by describing how privileged classes in contemporary times use leisure to define themselves.
1. Although it is generally accepted that recreation participation should be voluntary, often this is not the case. Give three examples of where this is not true.
1. 40. Explain the pros recess coaches as described in chapter two.
Playground injuries decreased.
1. 40. Explain thecons of recess coaches as described in chapter two.
A structured recess is simply an extension of the classroom rather than a true break.
1. Which of the following were consequences of rapid urbanization?
During which period was the idea: “idle hands are the devil’s workshop” popular
An example of a voluntary organization is:
1. Under which president was land designation for federal parks expanded under the Reclamation Act?
1. During XXX Time period, Which of the following was a concern about the use of leisure?
1. This plan by Franklin Roosevelt, called was the driving force behind the development of the recreation and park movement.
1. When an activity is no longer useful in its original form, it may become a form of sport.
1. During the 1970s, 80s, 90s and present day, one way that local recreation and park agencies compensated for reductions in funding was through:
1. In the 1990s, the overall park and recreation movement shifted from a focus on tax-support programs to a business model that more closely resembled _____
1. The process of taking any product or service and marketing it to yield financial profit is known as:
1. The practice of having corporate or commercial interests take responsibility for and run services and facilities is known as:
The 1980 saw a widening gap between rich and poor and a reduction in government assistance in fiscal programs. This fiscal attitude was called _________
1. 31. Identify and discuss the seven trends in recreation program functions.
1. Describe the term privatization and provide an example of its application to public parks and recreation.
1. Privatization is subcontracting or developing concession arrangements with private organizations. Privatization has come into play in the building of new sports stadiums or arenas, wherein arrangements have been made with commercial developers or businesses for private funding on all or part of construction costs.
1. 12. Relaxation and escape are examples of what leisure needs people are motivated to meet?
1. 22. _______ is leisure behavior that is restricted by society’s norms. (could have two responses)
1. The primary social contacts and interpersonal relationships for adults come from their work lives.
1. Loneliness can have unpleasant and even life-threatening consequences and often is directly linked to depression, obesity, and heart problems.
1. The travel industry is becoming health conscious and is providing more and more opportunities for their guests to be physically active.
1. 30. People are happiest when they spend six to seven hours per day socializing.
1. Discuss Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and how leisure impacts it or is impacted by it.
1. Sociocultural factors include all of the following except:
1. Over scheduling children is seen as negative for which reason(s)?
1. Children are spending less time outdoors in nature because of which reason(s)?
1. _______ are outdoor settings, or settings that primarily have not been manicured or prepared by individuals into a more formal park setting.
1. ________ is the process of children playing without intervention from adults, support devices such as playground equipment, and other external influences.
1. There is a widespread concern about the influence of movies, television, mass media, and music on:
1. Teens often claim _____ is the reason they engage in criminal and/or thrill-seeking activities.
1. Which of the following are important leisure pursuits for older adults?
1. Feminism deals with which of the following equity issues:
1. You have played golf for a number of years, but you don’t feel you are very good at it. As such, you grow to dislike playing at all. This is an example of what type of constraint?
1. The term used to identify one's biological or physical classification in terms of structure and function.
1. The term used to describe a broad range of characteristics, roles, or behavior that society usually attaches to either males or females.
1. _________ and misconceptions about physical capability and health needs limited programming for women and girls.
1. If you do not really like to play golf but decide to go on a golf outing because your three best friends are going, this is considered what type of constraint?
1. Lack of time, transportation, and money are examples of what type of constraints?
1. ______ refers to the genetic make-up of a person that often results in biological characteristics that are exhibited among various groups of people.
1. The term for a unique social and cultural heritage that is passed on from one generation to another is known as:
1. ________ are currently the dominant minority people in the United States.
1. There are two different perspectives in terms of how programs are delivered for different ethnic groups. If an agency offers different programs targeting different ethnic groups, they are using what method?
1. The model used to explain under participation by African Americ in terms of limited economic resources and historical discrimination is called what?
1. When including different racial and ethnic groups, Chavez suggests a three-pronged approach, including:
1. The changes that are occurring in the family structure mean an increased need for recreation services for working families.
1. An overscheduled child can have low self-esteem and escalated incidences of depression and substance abuse in the teen years.
1. Snowplow parents are ones who plow right through any obstacles that stand in their child’s way.
1. A poll done by Time found that four times as many parents indicated that their relationship with their children had actually improved because of recession-induced changes.
1. Helicopter parents often raise children who are strong decision makers and very responsible.
1. It is estimated that children are exposed to 14,000 sexual messages each year.
1. As a subgroup of the young adult population, college students usually are strongly influenced in their choice of leisure activities by their status as students.
1. Recreation and leisure assume a low priority in the lives of many older adults (mid 60s +).
1. Volunteerism for older adults is a viable substitute for work after retirement because of socialization aspects, sense of recognition, and self-worth.
1. Masculine and feminine adjectives apply to sex traits.
1. The feminist movement restricted men's legal and political rights.
1. Title IX was passed in 1974.
1. Title IX is a section of the 1972 federal law that prohibits sex discrimination only in athletics.
1. Constraints to leisure occur when the quality of the experience is diminished for some reason.
1. A major constraint that women face more than men is the lack of companions with which to socialize.
1. On average, the LGBT population is more highly educated and has a higher income than the national average, making them a gold mine for recreation companies and agencies.
1. Men are much more likely to find a friend for such things as taking a class or attending a cultural event than women are.
1. In a number of major American cities, non-whites now outnumber those of European background.
1. Travel is a common activity to all classes.
1. Hispanics and Asians tend to participate in outdoor recreation in large groups.
1. Explain the role of shifting masculine identities in leisure trends.
1. Discuss leisure constraints as they pertain to recreation in the lives of women.
1. Discuss leisure constraints as they pertain to recreation in the lives of men.
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