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JM M.

correlation coefficient

A decimal number between .00 and +1.00 and –1.00 that indicates the degree to which two quantitative variables are related.

coefficient of mult. correlation

An index of the strength of the relationship among a combination of predictor variables and the criterion variable. Like the usual correlation coefficient, a coefficient of zero would indicate that the variables are not related. On the other extreme, a coefficient of one would indicate that scores on the criterion variable can be perfectly predicted from the set of predictor variables.

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A type of research focused on a specific local problem and resulting in an action plan to address the problem.

An internal consistency or reliability coefficient for an instrument requiring only one test administration. Continuous scoring - not scored yes/no

A situation in which the researcher's hopes or expectations concerning the outcomes of the study actually contribute to producing various outcomes, thereby creating a threat to internal validity

The population from which the researcher can realistically select subjects for a sample, and to which the researcher is entitled to generalize findings. Test those you can reach

A statistical technique for equating groups on one or more variables when testing for **statistical significance**; it adjust scores on a **dependent variable** for initial differences on other variables, such as pretest performance or IQ.

A statistical technique for determining the **statistical significance** of differences among means; it can be used with two or more groups.

An instrument used to predict performance in a future situation

A general type of research in which a researcher looks for relationships having predictive and/or explanatory power. Both correctional and causal-comparative studies are examples.

Any important assertion presumed to be true but not actually verified; major assumptions should be described in one of the first sections of a research proposal or report.

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A set of statements to which the participant responds.

A number representing the typical score attained by a group of subjects.

M**easures of central tendency: **Indices representing the average or typical score attained by a group of subjects; the most commonly used in educational research are the mean and the median.

Research to determine the cause for, or consequences of, existing differences in groups of individuals; also referred to as ex post facto research - after the fact: research on action that has already taken place - try to determine cause for the particular outcome.

An attempt to acquire data from each and every member of a population.

A non parametric test of **statistical significance** appropriate when the data are in the form of frequency counts; it compares frequencies actually observed in a study with expected frequencies to see if they are significantly different.

The selection of groups of individuals, called clusters, rather than single individuals. All individuals in a cluster are included in the sample; the clusters are preferably selected randomly from the larger population of clusters. "Gangs in L.A." "YAFL football teams"

The square of the correlation coefficient. It indicates the degree of relationship between two variables cc=.7, cod= .49 or 49% related; cc= .5, cod= .25 (%) related(not so much)

A design (in survey research) in which a particular population is studied over time by taking different random samples at various points in time. The population remains conceptually the same, but individuals change (for example, graduates of San Francisco State University surveyed 10, 20 and 30 years after graduation).

One that studies multiple cases at the same time

The group in a research study that receives a different treatment from that of the experimental group.

The degree to which the scores on an instrument are related to the scores on another instrument administered at the same time, or to some other criterion available at the same time.

An interval used to estimate a parameter that is constructed in such a way that the interval has a predetermined probability of including the parameter. WHAT!?

In qualitative research; a sample selected to validate or extend previous findings

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Bias

Researcher bias - halo (all will be good) or pitchfork - all will be bad

Observation bias -

Sampling

goal is to slect participants who are REPRESENTATIVE of the entire population

Simple Random Sampling

all indiv have = chance of being chosen into sample group. random order of population, random numbers

stratified sampling

strategically selecting sample to "guarantee" desired rep. of subgroups within the sample. determine # or % of subgroup pop. and select how many SS acording to the # or %. Nurses in NM=1000, but AfAm=10%, cau=50% and Hisp=40%. For SS to be rep, randomly choose from ea group those same %s to test.

Cluster Sampling

groups are identified, not indiv.: 5th grader classes in APS, then randomly selct a certain # from each class (cluster)

See above

Systematic sampling

ideally, make a randomized list of a pop. (N) , determine the sample size(n), then N/n=k, choose every kth indiv on the list: 1000/100=10=k so from list of 1000, choose every 10th member until have 100 SS

Area sampling

if don't know how many in a community (county?/city limits?/state?), overlay grid on the area and randomly sample from each square on the grid (demographers/epidemiologists)

Sampling Error

(normal, expected) the diff btwn results obtained from sample study and result if studied entire population. =Standard Error (SE) gives us some idea of the precision of our statistical estimate. related to sample size:> sample size (N), < the standard error(SE)

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