10. The Russian Revolution Old Regime Russia Sources of Social Unrest Tsar-empire-like. Has complete power for most part Russian Orthodox Church Imperial bureaucracy Multinational empire Peasantry Compared to the rest of the world, their farming methods were pitiful. Like serfs much later than European peasants. Uneducated. Small middle class Industrialization Very hard conditions/no safety conditions/no laws about hours Parties Liberals Constitution and checks on the tsar?CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY Socialist revolutionaries Social democrats (Marxists) Secret police/repression May be sent to Siberia or exiled. Therefore, some went to Switzerland to plot about Russia Lenin and the Bolsheviks (Oct 1917 comes to power) Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin) (1870-1924) Grew up comfortably Brother hung in 1877 for plotting to kill tsar and he began to lean toward revolution Was sent to Siberia in 1895 for radicalism Was known to be gruff/rude. Won people over by his will force and logic. Pounded points until people went with it. Went to Switzerland until 1917. What is to be done? (1903) Most people didn?t think that they were ready for a Marxist revolution. In this book, Lenin says it is possible but you can?t wait for the workers to revolt. You can call for better conditions and people who are trained to foster revolution in the workers leading them to a revolution. Mensheviks vs Bolsheviks Group split. Lenin?s group Bolsheviks believed that revolution could have then and the Mensheviks thought it was still off in the future. The Revolution of 1905 Bloody Sunday?massacre of peaceful protestors by tsar?s army Tsar Nicholas II (r. 1894-1917) Duma (parliament) Nicholas is working on a little bit of reform. They didn?t have that much power. Still there today Pogrom Anti-Jewish riots that killed thousands of Jews The Bolsheviks Seize Power The Fall of the Romanov Dynasty (empire characterized by corruption) Nicholas II and Alexandra Alexandra granddaughter of Queen Victoria and grew up in England yet supported her husband?s limit of revolution Prince Alexei Suffered from hemophelia. Sickly a lot. Grigori Resputin (1872-1916) Nicholas turned to Resputin because his only son, Alexei, was sick so much and Resputin was seen as a ?holy man?. At one point he predicted that Alexei?s sickness will go away and when it did Nicholas trusted him. Some claim that he slept with Alexandra Decided that he was getting too popular so they tried poisoning him but it didn?t work so they shot him and crushed his skull then threw him in the river. Doctors confirmed he died from drowning. February Revolution (1917) They were short on break and people were waiting in line to get bread. Strike that pretty much shut down Petrograd Tsar commanded soldiers to shoot but the soldiers refused and went to the revolution side. Tsar had lost control. Ordered Duma to resolve and they refused. Eventually just gave up throne, Who gets the power? Petrograd (Saint Petersburg) Were the new ruler developed. Russian empire was too vast for someone to just pop up Dual Government Provisional government Two key players-- Alexander Kerensky Thought Russia needed to stay in WWI thought he was a liberalist Petrograd Soviet (soviet = committee) Formed to expressed opinion of workers in city Agreed to accept the provisional government Lenin arrives (April 1917) Before this the Bolsheviks? were not a large enough party Four key political messages Won?t work with the other socialist parties Called for immediate end of the war Demanded abolition of government and all power given to soviets Peasants be given ownership immediately of the land they were working on Became increasingly popular with the working class due to bad economic times July revolts (1917) Attempted revolt in Petrograd. Crushed by the government. Lenin fled to Finland Looked like they were done but the Kerensky government made some mistakes. Lavr Kornilov (army man) Kornilov affair?Kerensky fired him because he thought he would go against him. At this time Kerensky releases the Bolsheviks and gave them their weapons. Lost any army support he may have had Bolsheviks were able to go back and talk about immediate peace and gain followers Red October Congress of Soviets (Oct 25,1917) Took spots in different parts of the city and there was little resistance. Kerensky underestimated how much support the Soviets had from the army and working class. Kerensky fled Storming of the Winter Palace Rest of revolutionist stormed the winter palace that was held by the last forces of the government Very little resistance, arrested the provisional government Conclusions Two revolutions in 1917: February Revolution (Removal of tsar Nicholas II) WWI made the changes happen faster than they normally would October Revolution (Bolshevik seizure of power) Made possible by Lenin and his unswerving confidence in his ideas
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