Review Sheet -4 themes: human environ relation., dev. of cultural traditions, dev. of political system, dev. of social system, economy Paleolithic: Hunter-gatherers Nomadic No farming Made tools (stone) Lived in small bands of 20-30 Followed animal migration and vegetation cycle Less technology Shelter in caves Men and women had equal roles Paintings Passed on abilities to kids (quadenary) All had one religion and status Men hunt, women gather Invented fire Neolithic: Systematic food production Farming Grew beasts of burden Domesticated animals Men had more power Built own shelter?bands of people became villages & towns Religion Status Civilization Labor Tertiary services?serving other people Women tend kids Metal usage?copper, iron, bronze Mesopotamia: Sumerians Surrounded cities by walls Had city-states Economy was farming(main), manufacture, trade and exchange, labor Produced woolen textiles, pottery and metal work Imported: copper, tin and timber Exported: dried fish, wool, barley, wheat and wood Traded with Mediterranean and Harappa Valley between Tigris and Euphrates Soil enriched by silt Needed irrigation?little rain Animal drawn ploughs Herded sheep and goats, grew cattle, donkeys, pigs, and oxen Floods were unpredictable Flat plains More tech. advanced (hard life) Floods depended on snow of that year Social groups: nobles: royals, priestly officials and family commoners: nobles? clients, worked for palace, temples, were farmers, merchants, fishers, and craftspeople slaves: belonged to palace and temple officials, and to rich landowners, also worked for nobles? land Followed Code of Hammurabi?collection of 282 laws Marriage and Family was main: Purpose?have kids Nuclear family (mom, dad, kids) (financial contract) groom gave bridal payment, girl family gave dowry Women: Few privileges Can?t divorce If infertile, subject to divorce If reject house/humiliates husband, subject to drowning No adultery?result in drowning If relationship with son, both burned Patriarchy Men can have sexual relationships outside of marriage Father?banished if relat. w/ daughter Ethnicity: Language?Sumeric, Akadyian, Babylonian, Phonecian, Arabic, Hebrew Religion: Polytheistic An?sky, most important Enlil?wind Enki?earth, rivers, wells, annals, inventions/crafts Ninhursga?mother goddess, soil, vegetation, mountains People serve gods, gods shape lives of people (protect, shape bellief) Shaped hierarchy City-states had patron god Afterlife:horrific, serve gods Human rel.?subservience Divination: animal killing Oracles Arts and sciences: Metalwork Cuneiform (writing Stylus on clay Temples built on ziggurat Had Epic of Gilgamesh Lunar calendars, #system ased on 60 Egypt: Nile created fertile lands?but silt not rich Floodplains Easy source of irrigation Easier life than Mesopotamia & had sense of security, remaining rural Natural boundaries?no invasion, nile to south, Mediterranean to north, desert to east and west Flooding was gradual and predictable Major cities along river, further out were villages Light ploughing, enough to loosen soil Fallowed fields, poop was fertilizer, had cattle, sheep, goats, donkeys, pigs, and fowl Had art and writing, built pyramids, horse drawn things Functional statues Hieroglyphics Economy: Traded with Crete, Syria, Nuia, up and down Nile Imported:wood Manufacture: stone dishes, clay boxes, metal tools, paper, rope, and linen clothing King sent out traders King owned land, gave out land to people People pay tax in form of crops Class: God King(pharaoh) Priesets and nobles Merchants and artisans Surfs?worked on estates of nobles and aristocrats Family: Patriarchy Men can have more wives if first is infertile Women: Charge of house and kids Respected Their property stayed with them at marriage No jobs?some, peasants worked fields Upperclass: priestess Main was arranged marriage (some love marriages) Get compensation when divorced Ethnicity: Language?egyptian Hicses, Hittites, Nubians Hyksos taught them horse drawn chariots, and broze Hittites taught iron Religion: Polytheistic Two types of gods?land and sun Land: Source of resurrection (Osiris) Afterlife: good Only for kings in Old Kingdom In middle an new: all Osiris?judge of dead Book of dead Pyramids: tombs for dead, furnished for afterlife Sun: Source of life Develoption of monotheistic Harappa: Ganges river Indus river Himalayan mountains Deccan plateau rivers?main areas of civilization architecture?functional homes varied in size?tiny for workers 8000 ppl surrounded by walls like modern slum pictographic symbols on clay seals functional pottery Economy: Main:trade Trade with Persian gulf, and Egypt/Mesopotamia Imported: textiles, food Exported: copper and lumber Agriculture: grew wheat, barley, rice, pease, and cotton Irrigated from Indus Manufacture: luxury goods Fired clay Began with tiny villages Invented good bathrrom drainage Shang China Yangtze and Yellow rivers Arid landscape?lived off of rainfall Geographical barriers, isolated from other civilizations Village farm?basic social unit Pastoral nomads?farmers hated them Economy: Bornze casting: Shange speciality Manufactured: bronze items, and pots No trade Agriculture: No irrigation Burned weeds for fertilizer Pigs, dogs, buffalos, sheep, oxen and horses Grew wehat, barley, and beans 2 man ploughs Class: Elites: kings, royal family, priest(ess) Aristocrats: landowners Merchants/artisans?not much value Poor peasants?worked on farms of elite and aristocrats Family: Common clan name for village Joint families?important Individ. houses had nuclear families Pictographic writing?simple and functional, similar to Harappa Religion: Ancestor: was god Family (joint) gives proper rituals and offerings, ancestor assists family, if not, comes to haunt Phoenicians: Lived in Palsestine Along Mediterranean Produced goods for foreign markets?dye, glass, wine and lumber God international sea traders Improved ships Traded and settled colonies in Britian, Spain, and Africa 22 different signs to express speech best known as transmitters fell to Assyrians and Persians Aryans: Caste system: Varnas Brahmin?preist Kshatriya?warrior Vaisya?commoner Sudra---Dravidian, not fully Aryan, peasants, artisans, manual labor, limited rights Pariya?untouchable, very low, not considered human Religion: 4 vedas: Sanskrit Hymns Earliest known literature Brahmins and Upanishads were commentators on Vedas Polytheistic People (varnas) serve god, sacrifices, ascetism(meditation, later was substitute for sacrifices) Gods give blessings to all Hinduism Karma Reincarnation?based on deeds of past lives Moksha?reunite with Brahma, ultimate goal Cycle of existence?caused by bad karma Buddhism: Gautama Siddhatha Meditaion about worldy thoughts, wanted answer to questions Denied existence of individ, soul Accepted all of Hinduism beliefs except Atman (individ soul) Replaced moksha with nirvana Claimed that nirvana was based on actions of current life, not past Jainism: Founder: Mahavira Same as Buddhism, more extreme Hebrews: Children of Israel Judaism: Monotheistic Yahweh Jews sweve him, follow his rules, make temples Yahweh gives protection and prosperity Persians saved Hebrews If you don?t follow, he punishes in form of other nations: Hebrews fell to Assyrians and Babylonians Commmunicated by prophets?messengers of god Old Testament Needed Messiah Some accepted Jesus3 aspects: covenant, law and prophets Prophets cried out against social injustice
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