Appeal to Force If you do not accept that P, then you will be in bad trouble. Therefore, P.
Appeal to pity
If you do not accept that P, then some other person will get bad trouble.
Appeal to the people
If you accept that P, then you will be a member of the “in” crowd.
An ad hominem argument is one in which the arguer attacks the person
who made some particular claim, instead of attacking the claims made
by that person.
– That is, ad hominem arguments claim to refute another personǯs claims by
simply criticizing the person who made the claims.
Ad Hominem Argument
Person S claims that P.
Person S is defective in some way.
Therefore, P is false