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The notion that a self-conception is comprised of two different components; who we fundamentally "are" as individuals, and who we are in our relationships with others. That the "self" is both relational as well as descriptive.
The ability to reflect upon oneself, to inquire into what motivates our actions and behavior. This kind of introspection is limitless in terms of subject matter in relation to the "self."
This is typically evaluated by the Rouge test (the bit with lipstick and the infant) and Dan Povinelli's primate experiments.
This is particularly applicable to animals. While they may lack the capability to profoundly reflect upon themselves, they cogitate and process recognition of the organisms around them.
The "Imagined" Self
This is the first component of William James' conception of a dual self. This is the individual who we aspire to be in our thoughts and actions.
The "Objective" Self
This is the second component of William James' conception of a dual self. This is the one which we know others perceive us to be. This is referred to as the "I" in conversation with others.
To Have a Self From "Outside"
-Our perception of our conceived public image can stir feelings of shame within us, even when in solitude.
-The social context may dictate which aspects of the self we display at different junctures.
To Have a Self From "Inside"
-Introspectively, we can use ourselves as a starting point for empathy, as we compare our cognition to that of others. Regardless as to how inaccurate or accurate this may be, this difference is one which perpetuates many processes of self-cognition.-In relation of ourselves to others, we may perceive our shortcomings and skills as standard, and consequently perceive others either favorably or unfavorably.
False Consensus Effect
Our propensity to generalize based upon the assumption that we are the norm.
The process of comparing individuals to ourselves.
The way in which we alter our personality in the public eye, even if it runs contrary to who we perceive ourselves to be.
Mary Snyder's Self-Monitoring Theory Conclusions
There is the self you are to yourself.
There is the self you are to others.
Some of us care more about one or the other.
High self-monitors care about who they appear to be to others.Low self-monitors care about the private self far more.
The (Social) Person in (Social) Context
The notion that both the person and situation, when in tandem together, influence outcomes.
Person Variables in Social Psychology
Attributes of individuals, whether stable or temporary, internal, or external. This entails their appearance, mood, skills, habits, temperament, and goals.
In the field of social psychology, these are attributes of the situation that leave a mark on an individual psychologically. These may be either environmental or intentional from an external source.
Three Main Points for First Lecture
1. Social selves have both person/private and social/public aspects.
2. Humans and bonobos can reflect on who they are.3. Implication: Different social situations effect different aspects of persons.
A set of procedures employed for the sake of gathering, analyzing, and interpreting information in a way that reduces error and leads to dependable generalizations.
Research designed to increase knowledge pertaining to social behavior.
Research designed to increase the understanding of and solutions to real-world problems by using current social psychological knowledge.
An organized system of ideas that endeavors to explain how and why two or more events are related.
An educated guess or prediction about the nature o things based upon a theory.
Factors in scientific research that can be measured and that are capable of changing (or varying).
A very clear description of how a variable in a study has been measured.
A methodological technique in which the researcher misinforms participants about the true nature of what they are experiencing in the study.
A trained member of the research team who follows a script designed to create a specific impression on the research participant.
Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)
A panel of scientists and nonscientists who ensure the protection and welfare of research participants by formally reviewing researchers' methodologies and procedures prior to data collection.
A procedure by which people freely choose to participate in a study only after they are told about the activities they will perform.
A procedure at the conclusion of a research session in which participants are given full information about the nature and hypotheses of the study.
A group of people who are selected to participate in a research study.
All the members of an identifiable group from which a sample is drawn.
Repeating a study's scientific procedures using different participants in an attempt to duplicate the findings.
The use of statistical techniques to summarize results from similar studies on a specific topic to estimate the reliability and overall size of the effect.
A descriptive scientific method where a group is observed from inside the group itself. They are responsible for recording behavior as it occurs in its unadulterated environment.
Occurs when the researcher affects the nature of the observations made.
A descriptive scientific method which examines preexisting records and studies.
Research designed to examine the nature of the relationship between two or more naturally occurring variables.
Structured sets of questions or statements given to a group of people to evaluate their attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavioral propensities.
A procedure for selecting a sample of people to study in which everyone in the given population are at equal odds for being chosen.
Social Desirability Bias
A bias in a response to surveys, this is when the subject responds to a question by trying to portray themselves in a positive light as opposed to responding candidly and earnestly.
A statistical measure of the direction and strength of the linear relationship between two differing variables.
Research intended to test cause-effect relationships between variables.
The experimental variable which the researcher manipulates.
The experimental variable that is measured because it is perceived to depend upon the manipulated changes in the independent variable.
The extent to which a study's findings can be applied to a general population beyond those in the study itself.
The extent to which cause-and-effect conclusions can validly be made in a study.
An experimental result that occurs when two independent variables, when in tandem, leave a different impact on the dependent variable than when alone.
The way in which research participants are placed into experimental conditions. This is to ensure that all have an equal chance of being exposed to each level of the independent variable.
Implicit Association Test
A technique for measuring implicit beliefs, this is based on the assumption that people's preconceived notions and beliefs will come to the forefront if instructed to do so quickly.
Cooley's Thesis About Identity
"Identity is reflected in relationships, and is crafted through the 'looking-glass' of others."
James' Thesis About Identity
"Identity is what connects us to others-my bankbook and my chair are 'me.'"
James' Notion of Self-Integrity
According to this theory, individuals strive to maintain consistency with how they think others perceive them, as well as themselves. They are always striving to realize themselves as their "imagined" being.
Conceived of by E. Tory Higgins, this suggests that the self is comprised of a multitude of differing self-images. This entails three components: Actual self, ideal self, and ought self.
One of the three self-images of E. Tory Higgins' self-discrepancy theory, this is who we "truly" are in our unadulterated, unmonitored form.
One of the three self-images of E. Tory Higgins' self-discrepancy theory, this is the individual who we aspire to be in our actions and thoughts.
One of the three self-images of E. Tory Higgins' self-discrepancy theory, this is the individual who we feel that we should be, as dictated by social norms.
Discrepancy Between Own Actual Self and Own Ideal Self
This results in dissatisfaction with who we perceive ourselves to be, as well as self-disappointment, and fear of failure.
Discrepancy Between Own Actual and Other's Ideal Self
This results in shame, humiliation, anger from frustration, and, potentially, a pervading sense of misery.
Discrepancy Between Own Actual and Own Ought Self
This will instill a sense of guilt within our introspection, as well as severe feelings of worthlessness.
This is Claude Steele's theory that people who belong to denigrated groups may feel compelled to assimilate negative attributes typically projected onto their group. This self-doubt can have an impeding effect upon performance.
Three Main Takeaways for Second Lecture
1. Due to the fact that identity is so intertwined to other people and things, identity is easily threatened.
2. Threatening people's identities can prompt them to inflict harm on others, especially those perceived as "different."
3. Threatening people's identities can prompt them to hurt themselves by performing poorly, even against their will.
The culmination of a person's thoughts and feeling which define the self as an object.
A psychological state of mind in which one perceives oneself as an object of attention.
The temporary state of being lucid to one's private, hidden attributes of the self, such as one's personal attitudes and beliefs.
The fleeting state of mind in which one is aware of the public aspects of one's character and countenance.
The habitual and frequent propensity to engage in self-awareness.
The ways in which people govern and control their own actions.
Control Theory of Self-Regulation
A theory which asserts that, in practicing self-awareness, people come to conceive of a standard to which they constantly compare themselves to. In the event of a discrepancy, they strive to reduce it.
Discrepancies between our self-concept and the "ideal" self we strive to be, based on our own moral convictions as well as the expectations of others ("ought self").
Multiple Self-Aspects Framework
A theory which describes the self-concept as a multitude of self-aspects which accumulate to guide a person's conduct when they access different facets, depending upon the situation.
A way of constructing the self in terms of unique, personal attributes and as a being existing beyond the realms of any group or set of people.
A way of conceiving the self based upon social roles which is defined by a group.
Cultural Frame Switching
The process by which biculturalists alternate between culturally distinct appropriate behaviors, as governed by the context.
The identification of oneself as male or female.
Terror Management Theory
This was first conceived of by Greenberg, Pysczynski, and Solomon. They were largely inspired by Becker's idea that humans have the unique awareness of their own mortality. This runs counter to the human conception of continuity. To compartmentalize this dissonance, we either "bolster our own cultural worldviews" to enhance the idea that life has a meaning of some sort. Or, we may try to elevate our sense of self-worth, as we foster better self-esteem.
Aspects of a person's self-concept as defined by his or her group memberships.
An individual's perception of personal identification with a particular ethnic group.
Conscious and intentional efforts to alter people's impressions for the sake of winning power, influence, approval, or sympathy.
When people endeavor to sabotage their performance and enrich their opportunity for the sake of excusing anticipated failure.
The propensity to control one's own self-presentations based upon the cues other people's self-presentations give off.
The process of actively seeking out and interpreting situations so as to mold a positive view of oneself.
The process of seeking out and interpreting situations for the sake of solidifying one's self-concept.
A person's conscious and intentional evaluation of his or her self-concept.
A person's unintentional, and perhaps unconscious, evaluation of his or her self-concept.
Self-Evaluation Maintenance Model
A theory conceived of predicting what conditions are to elicit a reaction to the success of others with either pride or jealousy.
The way in which we interpret, analyze, recall, and utilize information pertaining to the social world.
The forming of categories of people based upon their common traits.
The most representative member of a category.
This is an organized structure of knowledge pertaining to a stimulus that is constructed from experience.
A cognitive structure for processing information based upon its perceived male or female attributes.
A schema which entails how a succession of events is likely to unfold in a well-known scenario. It is additionally used as a reference for behavior and problem-solving.
The process by which recent exposure to specific stimuli or events renders certain memories, categories, or schemas more accessible.
Time-efficient cognitive shortcuts which compartmentalize and simplify complex judgments to simple, fundamental rules.
The propensity to place things into a category on the basis of how closely they exert characteristics which align with the "typical" or "average" attributes of said category.
The propensity to judge how frequently and probably an event may transpire on the basis of how easy it is to conjure up examples of that event.
Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic
A propensity to be biased toward the initial or starting value and consequently anchor in making quantitative judgments and assessments.
The tendency to overestimate our ability to have foreseen the likelihood of an event after it has transpired.
The propensity to judge events by conceiving of different variations or outcomes of what truly took place.
The attempt to evade certain thoughts from entering one's consciousness.
Sheldon's Theory of Personality
This is a since empirically-debunked theory of personality which divides people into one of three personalities; an endomorph, an mesomorph, or and ectomorph. These make a fallacious correlation of personality with physical appearance.
Major Point from 9/9 Lecture
Our judgment of others is dictated by their appearances. This serves a function, as these judgments often confirm the stereotypes we already hold. This does not mean, however, that they are correct and grounded in reality.
Major Point from 9/9 Lecture
People do, in fact, use physical appearance as a means of judging personalities and dispositions. Additionally, these judgments have an impact on how we treat other people and their life outcomes.
Major Point for 9/9 Lecture
People make snap judgments that are often accurate and often consensual. However, these judgments have a major impact for what happens to others.
Face Judgment and Social Judgment
This is a theory conceived of by Leslie McArthur, PhD (and UConn alum). A study she conducted concluded that adults with infant-like attributes in their faces were judged by others cute, weak, naive, and honest, even when the subjects were questioned as to the intent of their fictitious individual.
The collective, general agreement between different perceives (not synonymous with accurate).
This was conceived of by Ambady and Rosenthal. Their study showed subjects 3 ten-second silent clips from 13 different professors giving a lecture. They asked them to assess what they thought the teacher's personality was. They then compared these judgments with the evaluations of students who had taken a course with each different professor. Unsurprisingly, it was concluded that those who had been exposed to the professor in a shorter capacity had inaccurate evaluations.
Mike Cunningham's Explanation of Attractive Preference
According to this theorist, it is a matter of "biological investment." Because faces are used for communication, individuals tend to like features that are communicative, or indicate good investment payoffs.
Preferred Facial Features: Neonate
Big foreheads, large eyes, wider set eyes, small chin, larger lips.
Preferred Facial Features: Mature
Higher, wider cheekbones and narrow cheeks.
Preferred Facial Features: Expressive
Larger smiles, higher eyebrows, and larger pupils.
Conclusion of "Miss Universe" Experiment
Physiognomic figures were considered more attractive, and thus, the more pronounced they were, the more willingly other men invested in those women.
The process by which we try to read the temporary states and enduring dispositions of others. This is also known as "social perception."
The communication of feelings and intentions without the use of words.
This is the propensity to assume the behaviors, mannerisms, and postures of people we are interacting with without consciously knowing that we are doing so.
A cluster of expectations as dictated by social norms. These inform individuals how they are expected to act in a given situation.
Social Role Theory
The theory that cultural stereotypes about gender is what pervades, and enables, all of the documented behavioral differences between males and females.
Traits that exert a disproportionate impact on people's overall impressions, resulting in their assuming the presence of other traits.
Implicit Personality Theories
A specific type of schema which people employ to compartmentalize and process which personality traits and behaviors go together.
The propensity to seek information which affirms our beliefs, while neglecting and denouncing contradictory information.
The way in which people use information to make inferences to explain behaviors or events.
An attribution which traces the cause of an event to a person's internal traits, such as personality, attitudes, moods, abilities, or effort.
An attribution which traces the cause of an event to factors completely external to the individual, such as luck, other people, or the scenario.
An inference that the actions of an actor corresponds to, or is indicative of, a consistent and stable personal attribute.
A principle of attribution theory which states that, for something to be the cause of a particular behavior, it must be present when the behavior occurs and absent when it does not occur.
A principle of attribution theory which states that, when there are several potential causal explanations for a particular event, people tend to be far less likely to attribute the effect to any particular cause.
This suggests that people don't make dispositional inferences when there is a plausible alternative explanation.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to attribute dispositional causes rather than the impact of situational causes on other people's behavior.
The tendency for people to attribute their own behavior to external causes rather than their own internal attributes.
Dual-Process Models of Attribution
Theories of attribution which propose that people initially engage in a relatively automatic and simple attributional assessment but then later consciously correct this attribution with more deliberate and effortful thinking.
The "Castro Study"
This was conducted in 1975 by Jones and Harris. It was intended to measure causal attributions, in which people were told that those who wrote essays either for or against Castro either because they were instructed to do so, or not.
Culture and Attribution
This was hypothesized by Joan G. Miller, who asserted that the United States' heavy stress on individualism is what lays the groundwork for the fundamental attribution error. Thus, the theory is primarily a cultural byproduct rather than a legitimate, clinical construct.
Cultural Development View
Also conceived of by Joan G. Miller, this asserted that Americans will show more dispositional attributions as they mature, whereas Indians (who are from a collectivist culture) will likely attribute more situations to context as they mature.
Major Takeaway from 9/11 Lecture
Adults are more likely to be deeply inculcated with their culture's types of attributions than children are.
Collectivist vs. Individualist Attributions
It was suggested by Joan G. Miller that, those in collectivist cultures were more likely to attribute an individual's external situation to their behavior rather than their internal. It was in turn believed that those in individualist cultures were more likely to place responsibility on an individual's accountability than their situation. This could be because collectivist cultures stress group harmony and collaboration, whereas individualist cultures value individual strife and integrity.
What Makes for a Better Scientific Question
Rather than saying that Americans tend to make dispositional attributions, it should be asked when people do and when people don't make dispositional attributions.
When behaviors have this relevance to us, we are ore likely to assume that they come from internal dispositions.
These are presumed to come from dispositional causes more than normative behaviors.
Theory of Attribution-Covariation
Based on the assumption that people think like scientists, this asserted that, in order to make causal attributions, a perceiver had to possess three kinds of information: consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness.
Theory of Attribution-Covariation
1. Consensus: Do others behave the same way?
2. Consistency: Does the target behave this way in similar situations?
3. Distinctiveness: Does the target behave differently in other situations?
Weiner's Attribution Theory
This says that, rather than scientists, people think like lawyers, in that they seek to convict someone as either guilty or responsible. This also asserted that attributions were made along three different dimensions: locus of control, stability of behavior, and controllability. These all dictate how motivations and emotions change.
Weiner's Attribution Theory
1. Locus of Control (internal or external)
2. Stability of Behavior
3. Controllability of Behavior
Major Point for 9/16 Lecture
How we make attributions for our own outcomes and for those of the behavior of others influences how well we do. Explaining negative and positive events or explaining them away can make them matter more or less in our lives.
Major Point from 9/16 Lecture
Many Americans show some bias toward making dispositional attributions. As with person perception, this shows that our judgments and explanations are not just a property of what we see, but how we see. However, people do take into account other information in making attributions.
This is the conception that, given that we're exposed to a broad diversity of personalities and people, once we classify them as belonging to one category, then we will use that as a basis for our norm.
In the measure of personality, this is the proclivity to hold tight to hostile sentiments in the wake of provocation.
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