1. (v.) to simplify, emphasize or distort qualities of perceptual reality.
2. (n.) the reduction of an image/object to an essential aspect of its form or concept.
an area of particular interest or importance
the area controlled by a physical object, including its physical volume/mass and the surrounding or enclose space.
a physical object constructed from separate parts which have been connected using glue,joints, stitching, welds, and so on.
a linear skeleton which provides support for other materials
an additive method in which the artist constructs the artwork using objects and images which were originally created for another purpose. AKA: 3D collage.
an equilibrium among visual elements which differ in size, number, weight, color, or texture. Asymmetrical balance is generally non- axial and very dynamic.
a visual/physical equilibrium among interacting and/or opposing forces in a composition.
a horizontal support for a physical object, such as marble block for mounting a bronze sculpture.
the dividing line between objects,images, or experiences.
the inherent/familiar texture of a material. The gleaming reflective surface of a steel teapot, the transparent and reflective qualities of glass, and the gritty texture of clay are all characteristic texture.
the forcing or crushing of material into a smaller, denser condition and its visual dynamics and implied psychological effect
1. a unifying relationship in a composition
2. a physical joining, through joints, welds, stitching, etc
the ideas embodied in an artwork
the situation in which an artwork is seen
the unfamiliar use of a texture or the addition of an unusual texture to the surface of an object. ex. "Meret Oppenheim's, Object" a cup, plate, and spoon covered with fur
the degree of difference between objects,shapes, colors, etc
AKA: Dominance: the most prominent visual element
skill/dexterity in the handling of tools and materials. The general completeness and appearance of an artwork.
an artwork that has been created through the transformation of natural sites into an aesthetic statement.
special attention given to some aspect of a composition, which gives it prominence
1. the physical manifestation of a design as opposed to the content, or the idea behind a design.
2. the organization/arrangement of visual elements to create a unified artwork.
3. a 3D object ex. square=shape cube=form
components of a basic visual language. The formal elements for 3D design are point, line, plane, volume, mass, space, texture, color, and time.
sculpture which is self-supporting and is designed to be viewed from all sides
the purpose of a design/ or the objective which motivates the designer.
the underlying sense of movement or the overall expressive qualities of an object.
any gradual transition from one color to another or from form to another.
a pleasing/soothing relationship among colors, shapes, or other design elements.
lines that are suggested by the positions of shapes/objects within a design.
the purity, saturation, or chroma of a color. ex. firetrucks = high intensity red/ bricks = low intensity red
an artwork/or design which presents an ensemble of images and objects within a 3D environment
In the Round
a 3D object which is self-supporting and is designed to be viewed from all sides, like free-standing sculptures
1. place at which objects or events meet.
2. a physical intersection between elements/parts in a 3D object.
adjacent placement of visual elements
works designed to move or change through time
1. a point in motion
2. a series of adjacent points
3. a connection between points
4. implied connection between points.
a small scale model, usually developed as an aid in planning.
a solid 3D form. A massive object can be as dense and heavy as a bar of gold or as light and porous as a sponge.
a small unit which can be repeated to create a larger piece.
an additive sculptural process by which a plastic material is formed into an artwork/design.
1. any clearly defined area around a positive form.
2. a space created through the absence of an object rather than through the presence of an object.
designs/artwork that are strictly formal and have no external subject.
a drawing system widely used by artists and designers to delineate the top, bottom, and four side views of a 3D object. means "true picture".
a 3D artwork which is designed to physically engage the viewer.
a vertical support for a sculptural object.
a live presentation, often including the artist, usually combining elements from a variety of art forms, such a film, video, theater and dance.
in 3D design, an area with measurable width and height. Shapes that have been combined to create 3D structures are called planes.
a functional manufactured object that is displayed as a work of art.
the outer edges of a physical object, such as the extremities of a carved sculpture.
a comparative relationship between the parts to a whole. For example, in figure drawing, the model's head is often compared to the overall height of the body.
the distance between the parts of a structure/ or between an object and the audience.
a form of balance that is created when shapes or volumes are mirrored both vertically and horizontally, with the center of the composition acting as a focal point.
sculpture in which forms project out from a flat surface. The degree of projection ranges from low to high relief.
the use of the same visual element/ visual effect a number of times in the same composition.
repetition of multiple parts in a composition to create a pattern of sound and silence, positive, and negative, or other contrasting forces.
a size relationship between two separate objects, such as the relationship between the size of the Statue of Liberty and a human visitor.
the inner edges of a physical object, such as the internal design and detailing of a carved sculpture.
in the orthographic projection, a slice of an object or architectural structure which reveals with internal structure and detail.
Site Specific Sculpture
an artwork expressly designed for and installed in a specific location.
area within, between, or around an area of substance
relationship of an object to the ground plane and other objects
any process by which an artist or designer removes materials from a larger mass, gradually revealing the form within.
an intrinsic material beauty or surface effect caused by an artist's handling of materials.
a form which represents something beyond its immediate meaning.
a form of balance that is created when shapes are mirrored on either side an axis, as in a composition that is vertically divided down the center.
referent to the sense of touch
the substantiality of an object or the degree to which an object or a force can be felt.
extension of an object through stretching or bending
surface quality of a 2D shape or 3D volume.
the distortion of an object through a twisting movement.
the process of changing from one state/form to another.
the oneness/wholeness in a design which occurs when all parts work together to create a cohesive whole.
hole or negative form/space in 3D art.
in 3D design, a volume is an enclosed area of 3D space.
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