PLEASE NOTE: This study guide is only meant to supplement your studying and is not meant to be a replacement. I still suggest rereading the chapters while using Professor Ingate?s lecture slides as clues on what to focus on. As always, make sure you go through all the Sakai questions and understand why the correct answers are correct so that you can apply those concepts to the exam. Now that you already had your first exam you should know what to expect for this second exam. I know it?s cumulative, but the exam should, and will probably be concentrated on chapters 5-9 with only key questions (that may or may not be the same as the ones on exam 1) from chapters 1-4. Also note the Sakai announcement regarding chapter 8. I believe Professor Ingate said to ignore the entire first half of the chapter on intelligence (the specific page numbers can be found in the announcements section), which also means that you can also ignore the sections on intelligence in this study guide. Good luck on your exam and if you have any questions feel free to email me and I?ll get back to you as soon as possible. CHAPTER 5 ? PERCEPTION, ACTION, LEARNING, COGNITION Know William James? thought on an infant?s worldly experience on pg 171 Sensation (p171): processing of basic information from the external world by the sensory receptors in the sense organs and brain Perception (p171): process of organizing and interpreting sensory information Vision: 40 to 50% of mature cerebral cortex devoted to visual processing Preferential Looking Technique (p172): method for studying visual attention in infants that involves showing infants two patterns or two objects at a time to see if the infants have a preference of one over the other; Know about Fantz?s pioneering research in this method on pg 172 Visual Acuity (p172): sharpness of visual discrimination; narrow stripe paradigm Contrast Sensitivity (p173): ability to detect differences in light and dark areas of a visual pattern Fovea (p173): central region of retina Know preferences and manifest ages related to development in visual processing of acuity, contrast, color, movement, and complex objects (like faces) on pg 172-173 I cannot stress enough how important Box 5.1 on pg 174-175 is; how infants perceive human faces is a central topic in the topic of perception Subjective Contour (p176): perceiving a coherent pattern that does not actually exist Perceptual Constancy (p176): perception of objects as being of constant size, shape, color, etc despite physical differences in the retinal image of the object; Know about the empiricist and nativist view on this matter as well as a study on size constancy involving cubes on pg 176-177 Object Segregation (p177): identification of separate objects in a visual array aided by additional sources of information such as concepts of gravity and common movement; Know about Kellman and Spelke?s study about importance of motion in object segregation tasks on pg 177-178 Common Movement (p178): visual cue where objects move with the same direction and speed Optical Expansion (p178): depth cue in which an object occludes increasingly more of the background, indicating that the object is approaching Binocular Disparity (p178): difference between the retinal image of an object in each eye that results in two slightly different signals being sent to the brain Stereopsis (p178-179): process by which the visual cortex combines the differing neural signals caused by binocular disparity, resulting in the perception of depth Monocular/Pictorial Cues (p179): perceptual cues of depth that can be perceived by one eye alone; Know about Yonas? study of a trapezoidal figure and monocular cues on pg 179 Relative Size (p179): larger objects appear nearer than smaller objects Interposition (p179): close objects partially occlude ones that are farther away Read Box 5.2 which talks about infants developing perception/interaction with pictures on pg 180 Hearing: reasonably well developed but infants can only respond to quiet sounds that are 4x that of the quiet sounds adults can hear; infants can still perceive very subtle differences in human speech Auditory Localization (p181): perception of the location in space of a sound source Know about infant?s preferences for music in terms of consonant tones, rhythm, and melody on pg 181 Taste: preference for flavors, especially sweet flavors, develops before birth Smell: preference for breast milk, especially that of mother, points to evolutionary significance Touch: oral exploration by putting hands, feet, and other objects in the mouth is later re-prioritized beneath manual exploration Intermodal Perception (p182): combining of information from two or more sensory systems; Know the specific studies that were developed to study various types of intermodal perception on pg 183 Reflexes (p184): innate, fixed patterns of action that occur in response to a particular stimulation Grasping Reflex (p184): newborns close their fingers around anything that contacts the palm of their hand Rooting Reflex (p184): newborns turn their head in the direction of the touch and open their mouth Sucking Reflex (p184): oral contact with a nipple results in a sucking action Swallowing Reflex (p184): follows sucking reflex with a swallowing action Tonic Neck Reflex (p184): newborn turns its head to one side, the arm on that side of the body extends, while the arm and knee on the other side flex Abnormally weak, abnormally vigorous, or persistent reflexes are signs of neurological problems Know in general what motor milestones are associated what age, and how these milestones can differ in different countries because of the cultural beliefs on pg 186-187 Stepping Reflex (p188): neonatal reflex in which an infant lifts first one leg and then the other in a coordinated pattern like walking Definitely make sure to read Box 5.3 and understand this study of the stepping reflex Prereaching Movement (p189): clumsy swiping movements by young infants toward the general vicinity of objects they see Know some more specific age milestones in reaching motion development on pg 189 Self-locomotion (p190): ability to move oneself around in the environment; Know strategies children employ to crawl and walk on pg 190 Read Box 5.4 about SIDS and age infants begin crawling on pg 190 Know about Karen Adolph?s study on integrating perceptual information with new motor skills on pg 191 in figure 5.9 Read Box 5.5 about social referencing and the visual cliff study on pg 192-193 Scale Error (p194): error by young children in which they attempt to perform an action on a miniature object that is impossible due to the large discrepancy in relative sizes of the child and object Habituation (p195): decrease in response to repeated stimulation which reveals the infant has learned and formed a memory representation of the repeated stimulus Differentiation (p195): extracting from the constantly changing stimulation in the environment those elements that are invariant or stable Affordances (p195): possibilities for action offered by objects and situations Staistical Learning (p196-197): picking up information from environment by forming associations among stimuli that occur in a statistically predictable pattern Classical Conditioning (p197): form of learning that consists of associating an initially neutral stimulus with a stimulus that always evokes a particular reflexive response Unconditioned Stimulus (p197): (UCS) stimulus that evokes a reflexive response Unconditioned Response (p197): (UCR) reflexive response elicited by unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Stimulus (p197): (CS) neutral stimulus repeatedly paired with unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Response (p197): (CR) originally reflexive response that is now elicited by conditions stimulus Instrumental Conditioning (p198): also known as operant conditioning, learning the relation between one?s own behavior and the consequences that result Positive Reinforcement (p198): reward that reliably follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated Know Carolyn Rovee-Collier?s procedure to study instrumental learning in infants on pg 198 Observational Learning (p199): form of learning involving observation of other people?s behaviors and the infants/toddlers reproducing these actions; Know specific ages and what the scope of an infant is capable of learning/mimicking on pg 199-200 Know about the paradigm for demonstrating an infant?s attention to intention on pg 199-200 and in figure 5.13 Violation of Expectancy (p202): procedure used to study infant cognition in which infants are shown an event that should evoke surprise or interest if it violates something the infant knows or assumes to be true Know the impossible vs. possible event paradigm of a rotating screen and a box on pg 202 and in figure 5.14 Know all the possible explanations and variations in the results of A-Not-B error paradigm on pg 202-203 Know age milestones at which infants acquire knowledge about physical phenomena (gravity) on pg 204 Infants gain an understanding that behavior of others is also purposive and goal-directed Know about the intentionality study involving an arm reaching for an object, involving a moving blob, and involving a mean square and a helpful triangle on pg 205-207 and in figures 5.17, 5.18, and 5.19 respectively CHAPTER 6 ? DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE AND SYMBOL USE Symbols (p212): systems for representing our thoughts, feelings, and knowledge and for communicating them to other people Language Comprehension (p213): understanding of what others say (sign or write) Language Production (p213): action of speaking (or signing or writing) to others Generativity (p213): idea that by using the finite set of words in our vocabulary, we can put together an infinite number of sentences and express an infinite number of ideas Phonemes (p214): elementary units of meaningful sound used to produce language Phonological Development (p214): acquisition of knowledge about the sound system of a language Morphemes (p214): smallest units of meaning in a language, composed of one or more phonemes Semantic Development (p214): learning of system for expressing meaning in a language, including word learning Syntax (p214): rules in a language that specify how words from different categories can be combined into phrases and sentences Syntactic development (p214): learning of syntax of a language Pragmatic Development (p214): acquisition of knowledge about how language is used Metalinguistic Knowledge (p215): understanding of properties and function of language; understanding of language as language Species-specific (p215): language is species-specific in that only humans can acquire full-fledged language Species-universal (p215): language is species-universal in that given a normal course of development in a normal environment, virtually all young humans learn language Know about some animals? language capacities on pg 215-216 in particular the various nonhuman primates that were studied Language is lateralized in the left hemisphere for most right handed people Aphasia (p216): condition in which language functions are severely impaired Broca?s Aphasia (p217): produced speech has meaning, but is hard to understand due to lack of grammatical structure and the frequent pauses; content words are kept in tact Wernicke?s Aphasia (p217): produced speech is coherent, but non-sensical; grammatical function words kept in tact Critical Period (p217): time during which language develops readily and after which (sometime between age 5 and puberty) language acquisition is much more difficult and ultimately less successful Know specific case studies of these critical periods on pg 217-219 (Victor, Genie, and Chinese/Korean immigrants) Infant-directed Talk (p219): abbreviated IDT and also known as motherese, this is a distinctive mode of speech that adults adopt when talking to babies and very young children Not all cultures use IDT, and American mothers tend to be extreme in their usage Warm emotional tone, exaggerated stress, exaggerated facial expression, slow and clear, Infants seem to prefer IDT Read Box 6.1 on pg 220 about bilingualism in children Prosody (p222): characteristic rhythm, tempo, cadence, melody, intonational patterns and so forth with which a language is spoken (similar properties are found in sign languages) Categorical Perception (p222): perception of speech sounds as belonging to discrete categories Voice Onset Time (p222): length of time between when air passes through the lips and when the vocal cords start vibrating Infants are able to distinguish phonetic differences in all languages of the world, including ones they have never heard before; Understand the development and age milestones at which infants lose this universal listening ability on pg 224 Infants are sensitive to the distributional properties of a language, which includes the likelihood of certain sounds appearing next to other sounds (forming words and non words) and lack of sounds (pauses in speech between words and syllables) Infants at 6 to 8 weeks of age have a large repertoire of sounds they can make (non speech sounds) as well as some drawn-out vowel sounds; begin to imitate sounds of their ?conversational? partners Infants at around 7 months of age begin to babble; this includes deaf babies who will silent babble with hand motions Intersubjectivity (p227): mutual understanding that people share during communication Joint Attention (p227): process in which social partners intentionally focus on a common referent in the external environment First indication of competence in communication manifests in learning to take turns in social interactions facilitated by parent-infant games like peekaboo and Give-and-Take Infants first learn to recognize words and then they begin to comprehend them An infant?s name is the first familiar speech segment that infants will be able to recognize Reference (p228): in language and speech, the association of words and meaning Comprehension Vocabulary (p228): words a child understands but may not be able to produce Productive Vocabulary (p228): words a child is able to produce; involves idiosyncratic ways of simplifying difficult words; beginning speakers of English have a large vocabulary of nouns because they are not only easier to label and identify, but middle-class American mothers are more likely to object label than mothers in other countries Holophrastic Period (p230): period when children begin using the words in their small productive vocabulary one word at a time Overextension (p231): use of a given word in a broader context than is appropriate Know when young children have their vocabulary growth spurt ? studying figure 6.9 on pg 231 may help Read box 6.2 and understand the different classifications of children?s language development Contributions to word learning: Adults speaking in IDT Fast Mapping (p232): process of rapidly learning a new word simply from the contrastative use of a familiar and an unfamiliar word Whole-object Assumption (p233): children expect a novel word to refer to a whole object, rather than to a part, property, action, or other aspect of the object Mutual Exclusivity (p233): children expect a given entity to have only one name Pragmatic Clues (p233): aspects of social context used for word learning including eye gaze Intentionality (p233): children are able to infer word meaning by connecting their understanding of a speaker?s motivation and the success of the desired event/situation Linguistic Context (p234): somewhat similar to bootstrapping, the book describes this one more as a method involving the classification of a word?s grammatical form Syntactic Bootstrapping (p235): strategy of using grammatical structure of the whole sentence to figure out meaning Understand the different paradigms used to study the above terms on pg 234-235 in figures 6.10, 6.11, and 6.12 Telegraphic Speech (p236): describes children?s first sentences that are generally two-word utterances; by the time they can produce four word sentences, children are able to produce complex sentences with more than one clause Read Box 6.3 and understand the influence of language on our ability to form concepts and think on pg 237 Overregularization (p239): speech errors in which children treat irregular forms of words as if they were regular Parents do not play as large a role in helping a child learn grammar as ?common sense? would have you believe Rule and Memory Model (p239): Gary Marcus proposes that over-regularization errors occur when children fail to retrieve from memory the correct form they have learned for a given irregular verb and thus apply the general rule by default; this explains why there is a U-shaped performance curve in language ability (it appears on the graph that the children suddenly have a relapse in their capacity to speak) Collective Monologues (p240): young children?s talk with one another in which the content of each child?s turn has little or nothing to do with what the other child has just said Narrative (p241): descriptions of past events that have the basic structure of a story; many times parents actively assist their children to develop the ability to produce coherent accounts of past events by scaffolding questions designed to elicit elaborate/detailed responses School-age children become increasingly capable of reflecting upon and analyzing languages allowing them not only the ability to master complex grammatical forms like the passive voice but also the ability to appreciate puns, riddles, and knock-knock jokes Universal Grammar (p243): set of highly abstract, unconscious rules that are common to all languages Modularity Hypothesis (p244): idea that the human brain contains an innate, self-contained language module that is separate from other aspects of cognitive functioning Read Box 6.4 about how a sign language evolved spontaneously in a school for Nicaraguan deaf children and about how sign languages have grammatical structures with hand motions on pg 245-246 Interactionists contend that children are motivated to interact with others, to communicate their own thoughts and feelings, and to understand what others are trying to communicate to; However, young children initially accept nonverbal sounds or gestures as labels for objects just as readily as they accept speech sounds Connectionism (p247): type of information processing approach that emphasizes the simultaneous activity of numerous, interconnected processing units; likening children once again to computers by comparing neural networks processing of speech sounds to computer networks processing bodies of language input Dual Representation (p248): idea that a symbolic artifact must be mentally represented in two ways at the same time, both as a real object and as a symbol for something other than itself; understand what kind of symbols can represent alternate meanings Know the scale model task inside and out (ages and procedure of study) in figure 6.16 on pg 248-249 Understand the development of children?s drawings on pg 250-251 including their ability to plan CHAPTER 7 ? CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT Concepts (p256): general ideas or understandings that can be used to group together objects, events, qualities, or abstractions that are similar in some way Children quickly come to divide entities in the world into the broad categories of inanimate objects, people, and living things Category Hierarchies (p258): categories that are related by set-subset relations Perceptual Categorization (p259): grouping together of objects with similar appearances; Know about Behl-Chadha?s study about infants habituating to pictures of various animals on pg 259 Infants increasingly become able to categorize entities by overall shape, functions, and then by knowledge about an object Superordinate Level (p260): most general level within a category hierarchy Subordinate Level (p260): most specific level within a category hierarchy Basic Level (p260): the middle level and often the first level learned within a category hierarchy; this level acts as a foundation for which children can build their knowledge about the super and sub ordinate levels Know about Krascum and Andrews study about wug and gillies in an attempt to realize the importance of understanding causal relationships in categorization on pg 261-262 Na´ve Psychology (p262): commonsense level of understanding of other people and oneself; understanding human behavior according to desires, beliefs, and actions of another During their first year, infants pay careful attention to humans, allowing them to pick up concepts of intentionality, joint attention, social referencing, and understanding of emotions Theory of Mind (p263): basic understanding of how the mind works and how it influences behavior Understand Wellman?s model of developing a theory of mind in figure 7.3 on pg 264 Most 2 year olds can only understand that desires influence behavior, but it is only around age 3 that children can recognize the importance of beliefs on one?s actions False-belief Problems (p265): tasks that test a child?s understanding that other people will act in accord with their own beliefs even when the child knows those beliefs are incorrect Know about the Smarties task study on pg 265 and in figure 7.4 (No set of conditions to date has allowed all 3 year olds to solve standard false-belief questions correctly more often than chance) Theory of Mind Module (p266): hypothesized brain mechanism devoted to understanding other human beings; three major research camps: 1) brain maturation 2) interactions with other people 3) development of information-processing skills Read Box 7.1 about children with autism and their ability to understand and relate to other people Pretend Play (p268): make-believe activities in which children create new symbolic relations (dual representation); first emerges at 18 months of age Object Substitution (p268): form of pretense in which an object is used as something other than itself Sociodramatic Play (p268): activities in which children enact mini dramas with other children or adults; Vygotsky correctly hypothesized that children?s fantasy play reflects as well as increases children?s understanding of other?s psychological functioning; fantasy play also enhances language development Read box 7.2 about children?s imaginary friends Children between 4 to 10 years of age believe that animals and plants serve specific purposes and not until they are between 7 to 10 years of age are they able to realize that plants are in fact alive Children pay more attention to animals than inanimate objects, but pay more attentions to humans than animals; Children also have difficulty understanding that humans are in fact animals and tend to equate being alive with being able to move in adaptive ways Young children are able to differentiate psychological processes from biological ones that are not under our control (growth, digestion, healing) Essentialism (p273): view that living things have an essence inside them that makes them what they are; children understand that certain traits are inherited from parents and this essences is kept and maintained throughout one?s life Young children have an understanding about illness and that germs are present and make one sick Nativists argue that children acquire biological knowledge because of biology modules in their mind that have developed through evolution; children are naturally fascinated by plants and animals and children across cultures organize biology related information in similar ways Empiricists argue that children?s biological understandings reflect what they are exposed to by their parents specifically and their culture in general Know about which hemispheres of the brain take part in processing specific types of spatial information on pg 276 Egocentric Representations (p276): coding of spatial locations relative to one?s own body without regard to the surroundings Know about how landmarks and self locomotion allow young infants to create correct spatial representations on pg 276-277 and in figure 7.6 Spatial processing can also be done through auditory information (if the surroundings are dark); Know about how surgery performed on newborns born blind to restore their sight affected their ability to represent space 20 years after surgery on pg 278-279 Know specific milestones at which infants and children are able to use landmarks, choose between landmarks, and then represent an objects location using multiple landmarks on pg 279 Dead Reckoning (p279): ability to keep track continuously of one?s location relative to the starting point and thus go directly back to it; Know specific examples of adults on college campuses and individuals growing up in the Australian desert on pg 279-280 Know milestones at which children acquire certain temporal relations/concepts on pg 280-281 including the ability to remember a linear sequence, estimating duration of events, and the ability to predict when future events will come Children around 5 years of age are only able to make logical inferences about time for simplistic situations (train example on pg 281) By 6 months of age infants can perceive causal relations among some physical events; Know about the collision of objects study on pg 282 Understanding of physical causality influences expectations as well as one?s ability to remember and imitate sequences of actions (see figure 7.7 on pg 283) Know about Chen and Siegler?s study of toddler problem solving involving an object that was out of reach on pg 283-284 and in figure 7.8 Understand how certain age related milestones allow children to enjoy magic tricks, read Box 7.3 on pg 285 Numerical Equality (p286): realization that all sets of N objects have something in common Know the traditional paradigm in which experts believe infants understand basic arithmetic on pg 286-287 Subitizing (p287): process by which adults and children can look at a few objects and almost immediately know how many objects are present Know what the five counting principles are on pg 288 Understand why Chinese children can count to 100 at age 5 while American children cannot on pg 288-289 CHAPTER 8 ? INTELLIGENCE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT Know the history of the intelligence test on pg 294 General Intelligence (p295): also known as g, this I the part of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks Fluid Intelligence (p295): ability to think on the spot and solve novel problems; related to ability to learn, speed of information processing, capacity of working memory, and ability to control attention; peaks around age 20 and slowly declines Crystallized Intelligence (p295): factual knowledge about the world reflecting long-term memory for prior experiences and is closely related to verbal ability; increases with age and experience Primary Mental Abilities (p296): seven abilities said by Thurstone to be crucial to intelligence including: word fluency, verbal meaning, reasoning, spatial visualization, numbering, rote memory, and perceptual speed Some theorize intelligence is a collection of numerous distinct processes including attending, perceiving, encoding, associating, generalizing, planning, reasoning, forming concepts, solving problems, generating and applying strategies, and comprehending and producing language Three-stratum Theory of Intelligence (p296): John Carroll?s model of intelligence in which g is located at the top of a hierarchy which spreads out into eight general abilities (like Thurstone?s idea) which spread out into specific processes such as those listed above Stanford-Binet test is a descendant of the original Binet-Simon test that was created at Stanford University Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (p298): abbreviated WISC, this is a widely used test designed to measure the intelligence of children ages 6 and older; Some specific test categories are on pg 298-299 Intelligence Quotient (p299): abbreviated IQ, a summary measure used to indicate a child?s intelligence relative to others the same age Normal Distribution (p299): pattern of data in which scores fall symmetrically around a mean value, with most scores falling close to the mean, and fewer scores farther from it Standard Deviation (p299): measure of variability of scores in a distribution; 68% fall within 1 standard deviation and 95% fall within 2 standard deviations; most IQ distributions use a standard deviation value of 15 points IQ scores at different ages tend to be similar but they are rarely identical and this is due to random variation as well as influence on development from the environment Read Box 8.1 about gifted children IQ scores have a positive relation with income and occupational success partly because standardized test scores serve as gatekeepers determining which students can gain access to extra training; Remember that a host of other factors like motivation to succeed, creativity, physical and mental health, and social skills also influence occupational success and these are not necessarily always measured on an IQ test Genes have a substantial influence on intelligence shown by how the IQ?s of adopted children increasingly correlate with their biological parents? IQ scores while moving away from their adoptive parents? IQ scores Passive Effects (p304): overlap of parents? genes and child?s genes predispose child to a certain behavior which is supported in the environment (parents who like reading will have a lot of books and their children will be predisposed to read, a behavior afforded by their surroundings) Evocative Effects (p304): children actively eliciting or influencing other people?s behavior (a child showing interesting in a story will cause the parent to read to her more) Active Effects (p304): children choosing environments they enjoy (high school student borrowing books from the library) Know about what Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) is on pg 304-306 Influence of non-shared environments on IQ increases with age while influence of shared environments decreases with age Know about the study of IQ scores of younger and older Israeli children on pg 306-307 Going to school makes children ?smarter? as shown by the drop of IQ scores during summer vacation and rise during the school year Flynn Effect (p307): IQ scores have steadily been rising so that younger generations are scoring higher than older generations at the same age; this trend has caused IQ testers to change the standardization scheme many times, and has been explained as the result of technology and better nutrition/health care Poverty can affect intellectual development in a number of ways including, chronic malnutrition, reduced access to health services, inadequate parenting, insufficient intellectual stimulation, and a lack of emotional support Some children are resilient in that despite living in poverty, they still function in a normal or superior range on cognitive, social, health, and growth measures possibly because impoverished parents were responsive and more likely to protect children from the effects of poverty Facts about intelligence in different racial groups Average IQ scores differ with Euro-American children 10 to 15 points above African American children, Latin and Native American fall in between, and Asian American children are as high or higher than the average Group differences refer to statistical averages and do not necessarily predict an individual?s score; there is more variability within the group than between groups Racial groups differ in their profile of intellectual abilities IQ scores do not indicate intellectual potential or what would happen if these children were living in different environments Know about Sameroff?s study of his environmental risk scale and IQ scores on pg 310-311 Intervention programs for young children from impoverished family that started during the 1960s have been shown to improve IQ scores substantially but this gain decreases by the fourth year after the end of the program; shown to have long-term effects on children?s motivations and classroom behavior; correlated with larger salaries Read Box 8.2 about the Carolina Abecedarian Project on pg 312 Know about Project Head Start on pg 313 Multiple Intelligence Theory (p314): Gardner?s theory of intellect, based on view that people possess at least eight types of intelligence including: linguistics, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, naturalistic, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal Gardner developed his theory by studying deficits shown by people with brain damage and he proposed that individuals learn best through instruction that allows them to build upon their intellectual strengths Theory of Successful Intelligence (p315): Sternberg?s theory of intellect, based on the view that intelligence is the ability to achieve success in life; this success depends on three abilities: Analytic Abilities (p315): involve types of linguistics, mathematical, and spatial skills that are measured by traditional intelligence tests Practical Abilities (p315): involve reasoning about everyday problems such as social conflicts Creative Abilities (p315): involve reasoning effectively in novel circumstances Know Chall?s five stages of children?s reading development on pg 316 Phonemic Awareness (p316): ability to identify component sounds within words Phonological Recoding Skills (p316): ability to translate letters into sounds and to blend sounds into words Prereading skills such as that text is read left to right and top to bottom, knowing the alphabet, and phonemic awareness (which is aided by working memory) are correlated with later reading achievement Visually Based Retrieval (p318): proceeding directly from the visual form of a word to its meaning Strategy Choice Process (p318): procedure for selecting among alternative ways of solving problems Read Box 8.3 about dyslexia on pg 320 Mental Model (p320): processes used to represent a situation or sequence of events Reading Comprehension: Basic Processes Encoding (p321): identification of key features of an object or event Automatization (p321): executing a process with minimal demands on cognitive resources Strategies Adjusting speed of reading depending on the depth at which one needs to master the material Metacognitive Knowledge Comprehension Monitoring (p321): process of keeping track of one?s understanding of a verbal description or text Content Knowldege Experiences allows readers to use cognitive resources for other tasks as well as allows them to make reasonable inferences about implications Children?s active reading as well as parents reading to them as preschoolers have higher reading achievement scores Prewriting skills include being able to make marks in a linear horizontal pattern and that numerous marks can signify many objects Writing is more difficult than reading because of the need to focus on low level goals (forming letters, spelling words, punctuation) and high level goals (making arguments comprehensible, organizing information coherently, providing background information to allow readers to understand) Good writers can automatize spelling and punctuation as well as consistently plan their writing, view their writing from the perspective of the reader, and revise more often Overt strategies are used more often when solving complex arithmetic problems while retrieval is used to quickly and accurately answer simple problems Read Box 8.4 about children with mathematical disabilities Good Students (p326): students who answer quickly and accurately and retrieve answers to many problems Not-so-Good Students (p326): students who answer more slowly and less accurately and retrieve answers to fewer problems Perfectionist (p326): like good students in answering quickly and accurately but avoid using retrieval except for answers they are sure of Mathematical Equality (p327): concept that values on each side of equal sign must be equivalent Gesture-Speech Mismatches (p327): phenomenon in which hand movements and verbal statements convey different ideas Know some of the mistakes and thought patterns of children trying to solve mathematical equality problems on pg 327 Know specific cultural differences in children?s arithmetic skills on pg 328 including Brazilian children able to do math for street vending and how Japanese students spend time solving problems CHAPTER 9 ? THEORIES OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Psychoanalytic Theories: View of Children?s Nature: Social development driven by biological maturation (age) Freud: behavior motivated by need to satisfy drives originating from the unconscious Erikson: healthy development involves successful navigation and resolving of age related crises Central Development Issues: Psychoanalytic theories are stage theories (continuity/discontinuity) Early experiences impact and shape future development (individual differences) Emphasis of biological foundations interacting with experience (nature/nurture) Freud?s Theory of Psychosexual Development: Psychic Energy (p336): biologically based, instinctual drives that fuel behavior, thoughts, and feelings Erogenous Zones (p336): areas of the body that become erotically sensitive in successive stages of development id (p337): earliest and most primitive personality structure; unconscious and operates with the goal of seeking pleasure Pleasure Principle (p337): governs the id with the goal of achieving maximal gratification immediately with little regard for consequences Oral Stage (p337): first stage occurring in the first year in which the primary source of satisfaction and pleasure is oral activity Innate instinctual drive of hunger creates tension in infant Strong love-object bond formed with the mother who breast-feeds infant Infant?s mother is also a source of security that comes with a fear of loss of love Ego (p337): second personality structure to develop; rational, logical, problem-solving Reality Principle (p337): governs ego with the goal of finding ways to satisfy the id that accord with demands of real world Anal Stage (p338): second stage lasting from 1 to 3 years of age in which the primary source of pleasure comes from defecation Demands from parents to toilet train conflict with erotic interests in defecation Phallic Stage (p338): third stage lasting from age 3 to 6 in which sexual pleasure is focused on genitalia Boys and girls derive pleasure from masturbation which parents would punish severely for (during Freud?s time) Children identify with their same-sex parent giving rise to gender differences in attitude and behavior Penis Envy (p338): girls notice and resent the fact that they do not have a penis Superego (p338): third personality structure consisting of internalized moral standards Internalization (p338): adoption of parents? rules and standards for acceptable and unacceptable behavior; guide child to avoid in actions that result in guilt/shame Oedipus Complex (p338): psychosexual conflict in which a boy experiences a form of sexual desire for his mother and wants an exclusive relationship with her, but fears retaliation of castration by father Electra Complex (p338): psychosexual conflict experienced by girls where they develop unacceptable romantic feelings for their father and see their mother as a rival; development of conscience for girls is lower because the erotic feelings are not as strong Repression (p338): ego?s protective strategy that banishes anxiety-producing thoughts and impulses to the unconscious Infantile Amnesia (p338): consequence of widespread repression in which the first few years of our life have a lack of memory Latency Period (p339): fourth stage from about age 6 to age 12 in which sexual energy gets channeled into socially acceptable activities Genital Stage (p339): fifth and final stage beginning in adolescence in which sexual maturation is complete and sexual intercourse becomes a major goal Healthy development culminates in the ability to invest oneself in and derive pleasure from both love and work; Those who do not meet the needs of any one stage become fixated on those needs leading to deviant behaviors in later life Erikson?s Theory of Psychosocial Development: Eight age-related crises that an individual must resolve or he/she will continue to struggle with it; Know the first 5 stages and how they overlap Freud?s stages on pg 339-341 Current Perspectives: Freud?s contributions to developmental psychology included his emphasis on importance of early experience, significance of emotional relationships, the concept of infantile amnesia, and how much of our mental life occurs outside the realm of consciousness Erikson?s contributions involve his emphasis on quest for identity in adolescence and how his stages correspond to research on autobiographical memory Learning Theories: View of Children?s Nature: Emphasis of the role of external factors in shaping personality and social behavior, but more contemporary theorists now include cognitive factors Central Developmental Issues: No qualitatively different developmental stages because same principles control learning and behavior throughout life (continuity/discontinuity) Theorists focus on how change happens (mechanisms of change) Therapeutic approaches have been developed to help children with problems (research and children?s welfare) Watson?s Behaviorism: John B. Watson is the founder of behaviorism and strongly believes that children learn primarily through conditioning and the only thing psychologists should study are objectively verifiable behaviors not the mind Know about Little Albert experiment on pgs 343-344 Systematic Desensitization (p344): form of therapy based on classical conditioning in which positive responses are gradually conditioned to stimuli that initially elicit a highly negative response; useful in treatment of fears/phobias Know about Watson?s published book advising parents to achieve distance and objectivity with their children on pg 344 Skinner?s Operant Conditioning: B.F. Skinner believed that every action is an operant response influenced by the outcomes of past behavior Found that attention can serve to be a powerful reinforcer and so a good strategy to deal with children throwing temper tantrums is a time-out Also found that behavior that has been intermittently reinforced is very hard to extinguish; inconsistent leniency is the reason why many children have a few persistent bad habits Behavior Modification (p345): form of therapy based on principles of operant conditioning in which reinforcement contingencies are changed to encourage more adaptive behavior; Know the example about a socially withdrawn boy and a teacher on pg 345-346 Social Learning Theory: Emphasizes observation and imitation rather than reinforcement; reinforcement may increase likelihood of imitation, but not necessary for learning Bandura has posited social cognitive theory as an integration of cognitive processes such as attention to others? behaviors, encoding what is observed, storing the information in memory, and retrieving it some time later Reciprocal Determinism (p346): Bandura?s concept that child0-environment influences operate in both directions Perceived Self-efficacy (p347): individual?s beliefs about how effectively one can control his/her behavior, thoughts, and emotions in order to achieve a desired goal Read Box 9.1 about Bandura?s study involving Bobo doll on pg 348-349 Current Perspectives: Lack attention to biological influences and cognition (except Bandura?s theories) Theories of Social Cognition: View of Children?s Nature: Self-socialization (p350): idea that children play a very active role in their own socialization through their activity preferences, friendship choices, etc. Children?s knowledge and beliefs about themselves and others lead them to adopt particular goals and standards to guide their behavior Central Development Issues: Comparisons between thinking and behavior of males and females (individual differences) Ability to think and reason about one?s own and other people?s thought, feelings, motives, and behavior (active child) Stage theories emphasize age-related qualitative changes whereas information-processing theories stress development of processes (continuity/discontinuity) Selman?s Stage Theory of Role Taking: Role Taking (p350): being aware of the perspective of another person, thereby better understanding that person?s behavior, thoughts, and feelings Know the ages of Selman?s stage theory as well as what each stage comprises on pg 351 Dodge?s Information Processing Theory of Social Problem Solving: Six steps of social problem solving: Encode a problematic event Interpret social cues involved Formulate a goal to resolve the incident Generate strategies to achieve the goal Evaluate the likely success of potential strategies Enact a behavior Hostile Attributional Bias (p352): tendency to assume that other people?s ambiguous actions stem from a hostile intent; Know about the example with someone bumping into a table on pg 351 Dweck?s Theory of Self-Attributions and Achievement Motivation: Mastery Orientation (p352): general tendency to attribute success and failure to the amount of effort expended and to persist in the face of failure Helpless Orientation (p352): general tendency to attribute success and failure to enduring aspects of the self and to give up in the face of failure Entity Theory (p352): theory that a person?s level of intelligence is fixed and unchangeable Incremental Theory (p353): theory that a person?s level of intelligence is not fixed and can grow as a function of experience Praise and criticism affect children in different ways depending on what the feedback is given for Current Perspectives: Important contributions include strong emphasis on children as active seekers of information about the social world and the insight that the effect of children?s social experience depends on their interpretation of those experiences Ecological Theories of Development: View of Children?s Nature: Children are inheritors of genetically based abilities and predispositions that underlie most aspect of their behavior Central Development Issues: Contextual effect on biologically based behaviors (nature/nurture + sociocultural context) Children develop gradually and influence their development (active role + continuity/discontinuity) Ethological and Evolutionary Theories: Ethology (p355): study of behavior within an evolutionary context, attempting to understand behavior in terms of its adaptive or survival value Imprinting (p355): form of learning in which the young of some newborn birds and some mammals become attached to their mother at first sight and follow her everywhere (basically ensuring the baby will stay near a source of food and protection); imprinting must occur in a very specific critical period very early in life Know the specifics of how imprinting works in both birds and human babies on pg 355 One adaptive features of human species is that we have large brains which cause us to have a prolonged period of immaturity and dependence during which the brain can develop Parental-Investment Theory (p357): theory that stresses the evolutionary basis of many aspects of parental behavior, including extensive investments parents make in offspring; Connect this to the study of child homicides being committed by stepfathers on pg 357 Know about the concern about the environments of premature infants on pg 358 Know Bronfenbrenner?s bioecological model in detail, what system envelops which system, how environments interact, and examples of each on pg 359-360 and in figure 9.4 Microsystem (p359): the immediate environment that an individual personally experiences Mesosystem (p360): the interconnections among immediate, or microsystem, settings Exosystem (p360): environmental settings that a person does not directly experience but can affect the person indirectly Macrosystem (p360): the larger cultural and social context within which the other systems are embedded Chronosystem (p360): historical changes that influence other systems Child Maltreatment (Analyze in terms of the bioecological model) (p361): intentional abuse or neglect that endangers the well being of anyone under the age of 18; Know some statistics on what types of abuse are most prevalent on pg 361 Causes of Maltreatment: Certain characteristics of children: low birth weight, physical or mental handicaps, difficult temprament Parents who maltreat children often have low self-esteem, strong reactions to stress, and poor impulse control Low family income, social isolation, lack of social support Consequences of Maltreatment: Less secure relationships with parents as well as other people Lower self esteem, anxious, inattentive, overly dependent Future development of serious psychopathologies including depression, substance abuse, eating disorders, and antisocial behavior Read about ADHD in Box 9.2 on pg 362-363 Read Box 9.3 about preventing child abuse on pg 364 Children and Media (Analyze in terms of the bioecological model) Know some of the research done correlating media violence with violent behavior on pg 365-366 Childhood obesity is exacerbated by the sedentary nature of television watching and computer usage Some concerns about social isolation involved with computer use, but children often use computers with Internet access and it follows that they communicate with friends Some families of lower SES cannot afford a personal computer which causes the current social gap to widen Know some of the negative effects of exposure to pornography on pg 366-367 SES and Development (Analyze in terms of the bioecological model) Understand the range of influence poverty can have on one?s lifestyle shown in table 9.1 on pg 368 Understand how the opposite extreme of affluence can also negatively impact a child?s development on pg 368-369 Current Perspectives: Contributions include placing individual development in a broader context Emphasis on biological nature and genetic tendencies provide fascinating insight, but are impossible to test and are often more explanatory than predictive
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