Narcissism hides a fragile self-view requiring constant external affirmation, that collapses under negative feedback or stress
Research on Narcissism
High narcissists showed greater reactivity to feedback- greater increases in self-esteem following success, greater decreases following failure
Are people with really high self-esteem kind of annoying?
The effects of self-esteem are small, limited, and not at all good...my conclusion is that self-control is worth 10 times as much as self-esteem.
The belief that one is competent, effective, in control of one's outcomes
What promotes self-efficacy?
Locus of control: beliefs about the causes of one's outcomes
Internal: outcomes are caused by one's owns actions External: outcomes are caused by external factors Stable: the factors that cause outcomes are consistent and cannot be changed Unstable: the factors that cause outcomes are mutable
Locus of control examples
Why did I lose my wallet at the airport? internal, stable: I'm an airhead and I can't do anything about it internal, unstable- I was stressed and not paying attention external, stable- the airport is confusing and the people who work there are stupid External unstable- things were chaotic because the airport canceled my flight
Learned helplessness: when one gives up trying because of perceived loss of control.
Dogs strapped into hammock and shocked by floor Group A could turn off shock w/ nose...Group B could not Later dogs were released from hammock and could jump compartments
Behavior of Seligman's Group B dogs looked remarkably like that of depressed people Group B dogs didn't try to move
looking-glass self social comparison social roles life experience self-serving bias self-handicapping self-presentation
The Looking-Glass Self
The sense of self that is based upon what others (appear to) think of us
subliminal priming of "senile" vs. "wise" views of aging, and memory self-efficacy in older adults
Defining the self based upon differences from other people
Motivated social comparison: when people feel badly about themselves, their tendency toward downward comparison increases
A set of norms that defines how people in a given social position ought to behave (and think and feel)
Examples: gender, profession, relationship typically involve position relative to others
Classic Study: Stanford Prison Experiment
Person x Environment interaction: the self concept facilitates certain kinds of experiences which feed into the self concept
The tendency to see one's self favorably
Giving up on or creating barriers to one's own performance, creating an easy explanation for failure
Consciously or subconsciously behaving in a way that creates a desired impression on others
The overall need to be seen by others in a positive light
the extent to which a person alters his or her self-presentation depending on other people's expectations.
High self-monitors: inconsistent across situations Good at assessing what others demand and tailoring their behavior to fit those demands
Low self-monitors look inside themselves to decide how to act.
Goals of Self-Presentation
To be seen as likeable (ingratiation) To be seen as competent (self-promotion) To be seen as powerful (intimidation)
Attitudes Toward Groups
Stereotype- a cognitive belief about the characteristics shared by a group of people
Prejudice-global, negative affect felt toward a group of people
Negative behavior directed toward a group of people, based solely on group membership
Social cognitive heuristics-mental links between groups and traits
Out-group homogeneity effect
My own groups seem more diverse than groups I'm not part of "outgroups"
Fear that one will confirm a stereotype of one's own group, which ends up interfering with performance
Spencer, Steele and Quinn (1999)
Men and women completed a difficult math test
Before test, half were told that men generally perform better in math than women, other half not told this
Steele and Aronson
African-American and white students completed a difficult exam
Half of participants asked to report their race on the front page of the test booklet the other half were not
Negative overall affective/ emotional response to members of another group
Bogardis Social Distance Scale
It would not bother me if my son/daughter dated a _____________
Modern Racism Scale
Blacks are getting too demanding in their push for equal rights.
New Measures of Prejudice: Implicit Measures
IAT and Neurological activation -amygdala activation when viewing faces of African-American men, measured using fMRI
Where Does Prejudice Come From?
Realistic Group Conflict Theory
perceived competition for resources as cause of prejudice
"Just world" Phenomenon
believing people deserve what they get
Clark and Clark
Basis of Brown v. The Board of Education (1954) Supreme court decision ending segregation
African American kids asked to choose whether they wanted to play with a white or black doll
Sources of Prejudice
Social Dominance Orientation- the need to feel that one's group is superior to other groups Authoritarianism- preoccupation w/ formal authority, hierarchy
General Tendency to preferentially benefit members of your own group
Basic Attraction: Like it
Who do we like? Familiarity and Similarity
What Do We Like About Them?
Traits/Dispositions (intelligence, warmth, humor)
Women: people we share feelings w/ emotional intimacy Men: People we do stuff with
Love and Marriage
Similarity: Married after age 20, similar age Same level of education, especially if high Religious and of same religious affliation
Grew up in a 2-parent home Sense of equity, fair give and take
Dated for a long time, but did not live together Good income Sex often, arguments rarely
Love and War-Top Causes of Conflict
Sex Money Birth of First child
Love and Reconciliation
Gottman-4 horsemen of the apocalypse -Criticism -Defensiveness -Contempt -Stonewalling
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