1. Sender has idea 2. Sender encodes idea in message 3. message travels over channel 4. receiver decodes message 5. feedback travels to sender 6. possible additional feedback to receiver
Which steps of the communication process make for 2-way communication?
steps 5 and 6
The three things needed to be a good communicator
1. Time 2. Effort 3. Intimacy
One way communication
Quick and easy Receiver is less confident so may display less accurate actions Check box tactic will have to to back and revisit
Imperfect because sometimes the intention does not match the meaning
Two way communication
slow and hard receiver is more confident and more accurate
The transfer of a message and its meaning.
How much of the intended message normally reaches the receiver?
keep it simple silly
Barriers to interpersonal communication
1. Bypassing 2. Limited frame of reference 3. lack of language skills 4. lack of listening skills 5. emotional interference 6. physical and mental distractions
The transfer of message with missed meaning-choose wrong words Overtime miscommunication example
Frame of Reference
what you see and feel in life - experience, background, education, religion, your frames are limited by time on earth
Does not just involve using big words. Adapt to audience KISS
Deceiver meaning of words
Should stay objective, rational, and factual
Physical and mental distractions
Sights, if you're hungry or tired, daydreaming, etc
Overcoming interpersonal communication barriers
1. Realize that communication is imperfect 2. Adapt the message to the receiver 3. Improve your listening and language skills 4. question your preconceptions 5. plan for feedback 6. realize that communication is 2 way, not one way 7. Be objective with negative information, be subjective with positive information
Barriers to organizational communication
1. Closed communication climate - no ideas shared or only positive, no critical info is shared 2. Top-heavy organizational structure 3. long-lines of communication 4. lack of trust between management and employees 5. competition for power, status, rewards
More barriers to organizational communication
6. Fear of reprisal for honest communication 7. differing frames of reference among communicators 8. lack of communication skills - too aggressive or too shy 9. Ego involvement - narcisism 10. Turf wars
Overcoming barriers to organizational communication
1. Open environment for interaction/feedback - share critical information 2. Flatten organizational structure - rightsize or downsize 3. Promote horizontal communication 4. Allow for anonymous feedback. 5. Information through formal channels - documented 7. Equal rewards for individuals and team achievement 8. Teams
Advantages to oral communication
Can show emotion, confirmation and feedback, nonverbal cues (grateful, foreceful)
Advantages to written communication
More time to figure out words you want to say, more passive than aggressive, documentation, careful, thoughtful (convenient, economical, distributive)
Advantages of informal (grapevine) communication
The best managers have a lot of informal conversations because they learn more than they do from formal communication
Pros of texting
Quick and efficient Distributive Save messages and refer back (documented) Convenient less intrusive speed mobility
Cons of texting
Misinterpreted (bypassign) impersonal hard to pick up on emotions distraction/multi-tasking could say something you don't mean to say can ignore or avoid answering abbreviations create unintended meaning personal time away from work missing link between message and nonverbal association documented limits ability to construct professional email dangerous
The listenign process model
1. Perception - tune in and focus 2. Interpretation - filter using frame of reference (match frames so you can relate) 3. Evaluation - separate facts from opinions; judge objectively 4. Action - Store message; respond/feedback
How much information do we retain?
Why do we ignore/miss/forget 75% of information?
We talk 125-250 wpm while we think 1000-3000 wpm The brain works 10 times faster so we think about other things
Why is listenig so important?
Hourly workers spend about 30% of their time listening while executives spend about 70% of their time listenign. As you move up the ladder you will spend more time listening
Listening process mental barriers
1. inattention 2. prejudgment - don't think you will like what someone has to say or already know - open but bias 3. Frame of reference 4. closed-mindedness - not even open with bias, no intention of listening 5 Pseudolistening - fake listening - could be positive
What is the difference between prejudgement and closed mindedness?
Prejudgement - open but with bias Closed Mindedness - not even open with bias
Listening process physical barriers
1. hearing impairment 2. noisy surroundings 3. speakers appearance - really good or bad 4. speakers mannerisms - too still or too much movement 5. lag time - the awkward silences
Tips to improved listening
1. Stop talking - internal and external 2. Control external and internal distractions 3. Become actively involved 4. Practice empathy - the intellectual identification with or vicarious experiencing or feelings/thoughts or attitudes of another
More tips to improved listening
5. Separate facts from opinion 6. Identify important facts 7. Ask clarifying questions 8. Paraphrase to increase understanding 9. capitalize on lag time 10. Take notes to ensure retention 11. Be aware of gender differences - women are better listeners, not intimidated
1. Personal interest 2. Eye contact 3. Body Language
Forms of nonverbal communication
1. Eye contact 2. Facial expression 3. posture and gestures 4. vocal tone, volume, and word choice 5. Appearance of people 6. Other senses (scents, touch, taste) 7. Time - the time you give to people 8. Appearance of documents (tone, volume, work choice) 9. Space/territory
Can be intentional or unintentional
Functions of Nonverbal communication
To complement and illustrate to reinforce and accentuate To replace and substitute To control and regulate To contradict
Why is nonverbal communication so important?
It is remebered longer than verbal communication; it lingers
Presents a message in a manner that causes the other person to support it
Earns trust, respect, and integrity in the eyes of others
Persuasion can't be credible without ___________
Sources of noise that inhibit effective communication
1. Information filtering - the unintentional distortion of information to make it appear most favorable to the recipient. 2. Poor choice of communication channel 3. poor written or oral expression 4. failure to recognize nonverbal signals 5. physical distractions
The tendencty to consider one's own culture as superior to any and all others. It can hurt communication becasue it can 1. cause someone to not listen to what others have to say 2. cause someone to address or speak with others in ways that alienate them. or 3. may lead to the use of inapppropriate stereotypes when dealing with people from other cultures.
Involves openly sharing honest and complete information about the organization and workpolace affairs. It creates trust.
Open book management
Where managers provide employees with essential financial information about their companies.
Management by wandering around (MBWA)
Managers spend time outside their offices to meet and talk with workers at all levels. This face to face time improves communication with subordinates and team members
The process of telling someone else how you feel about something that person did or said
Guidlines for constructive feedback
1. Give feedback directly and with real feeling, based on trust 2. Make sure that feedback is specified rather than general; use clear examples 3. Give feedback at a time the receiver seems most willing or able to accept it. 4. Make sure feedback is valid; limit it to things the receiver can do things about 5. Give feedback in small doses
What are two things that convey varying intentions in terms of intimacy, openness, and status in interpersonal communications?
Space design and distance
Involve disagreements over such things as goals and tasks, allocation of resources, distribution or rewareds, policis and procedures, and job assignments.
results from feelings of anger, distrust, dislike, fear, and resentment, as well as from personality clashes and relationship problems
Being uncooperative and unassertive, downplaying disagreement, withdrawing from the situation and/or staying neutral at all costs. Pretend the conflict doesn't exist.
Being cooperative but unasserive. Letting the wishes of others rule, smoothing over or overlooking differences to maintain harmondy. Highlight similarities to reduce conflict.
Being uncooperative by assertive, working against the wishes of the other party, engaging in win-lose competition, and/or forcing through the excercise of authority. Uses force or domination to "win" a conflict
Being moderately cooperative and assertive, bargaining for "acceptable" solutions in which each party wins a bit and loses a bit
Being cooperative and assertive, trying to fully satisfy everyone's concerns by working through differences, finding and solving problems so that everyone gains - everyone wins
No one achieves his/her true desires, and the underlying reasons for conflict remain unaffected. Often caused by avoiding or accomodating
Conflict where one party achieves its desires and the other party does not. Often caused by competing and compromising.
The conflict is resolved to everyone's benefit. Collaborating - eliminates the underlying causes of conflict
Focuses on win-lose claims made by each party for certain preferred outcomes. Relationships are often sacrificed as the negotiating parties focus only on their respective self-interest
Uses a win-win orientation to reach solutions acceptable to each party. No one should lose and relationships are maintained.
Four rules for principled negotiation
1. Separate the people from the problem 2. Focus on interests, not on positions 3. Generate many alternatives before deciding what to do 4. Insist that results be based on some objective standard
Potential pitfalls of negotiation
1. myth of the fixed pie 2. non-rational escalation of conflict 3. overconfidence and ignoring the other's needs 4. too much "telling" and too little "hearing" 5. Premature cultural comfort 6. Trap of unethical misconduct
Myth of the fixed pie
the assumption that for you to gain the other person must give something up
nonrational escalation of conflict
Allows for personal needs for "ego" and "saving face" to increase the perceived importance of satisfying them
Overconfidence and ignoring the other's needs
You don't make yourself understood and you don't understand what othe other party is saying
Premature cultural comfort
When a negotiator is too quick to assume that he/she understands the intentions, positions, and meaning communicated by a negotiator from a different culture
Trap of unethical misconduct
Arises from undue emphasis on the profit motive
a neutral party tries to help conflicting parties improve communication to resolve their disputes. Discusses but does not make or issue a ruling decision.
A neutral third party that issues a binding decision to resolve a dispute.
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