Slide * AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * More on Plant Selection Considerations Chapter 6 in Arboriculture Lecture Learning Objectives Identify important ?questions? about selecting plant material that landscapers need to ask themselves. Identify how landscape plants are sold in wholesale & retail markets. Describe the quality factors to look for in bare root, B&B and containerized plant material. Describe the sources or references you need to be aware of for quality specifications and ?keeping current? after ISU. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Selecting Woody Plants Most homeowners (and probably some professionals) make the mistake of deciding what kind of tree they want and then trying to fit it into their landscape. A better approach is to decide where a tree is needed and what that tree should do in the landscape. After the desired type of tree has been determined, then it is much easier to select a species to fulfill these requirements. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Some Thoughts on Plant Selection Selecting the correct plant species or cultivar to install in a particular landscape location is the most important decision landscapers can make. Rarely can large modifications in the site environment be made, so ?the right plant in the right location? is critical. However, ?there is NO perfect plant or tree? ? many times there needs to be compromises made and allowance for the majority of correct features ? not all of them. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Desirable Qualities for Landscape & Street Trees: Predictable size & form Strong crown structure Rapid growth rate (but not too rapid) Ease of transplanting & establishment Minimal trash or liter generation Pest resistance Tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions Deep-rooted Non-invasive AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Selection is a compromise among proposed function, adaptation to the site, and amount of maintenance and care a plant will require so; ?maximize a plant?s assets & minimize it?s liabilities?. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Hyperlink to Website This is an important source of information for landscapers bidding on community projects. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Scientific Name Common Name Family Acer platanoides Ailanthus altissima Albizzia julibrissin Berberis thunbergii Elaeagnus umbellata Euonymus alata Hibiscus syriacus Ligustrum vulgare Lonicera X bella Lonicera maackii Lonicera morrowii Lonicera tatarica Morus alba Paulownia tomentosa Populus alba Quercus acutissima Rhamnus cathartica Rhamnus frangula Robinia pseudo-acacia Rosa multiflora Ulmus pumila Viburnum lantana Viburnum opulus Norway Maple Tree-of-heaven Mimosa Japanese Barberry Autumn Olive Burning Bush Rose-of-Sharon Common Privet Hybrid Honeysuckle Amur Honeysuckle Morrow's Honeysuckle Tatarian Honeysuckle White Mulberry Princess Tree White Poplar Sawtooth Oak Common Buckthorn Smooth Buckthorn Black Locust Multiflora Rose Siberian Elm Wayfaring Tree European Highbush Cranberry Aceraceae Simaroubaceae Mimosaceae Berberidaceae Elaeagnaceae Celastraceae Malvaceae Oleaceae Caprifoliaceae Caprifoliaceae Caprifoliaceae Caprifoliaceae Moraceae Scrophulariaceae Salicaceae Fagaceae Rhamnaceae Rhamnaceae Fabaceae Rosaceae Ulmaceae Caprifoliaceae Caprifoliaceae IL Invasive Plants Many of the worst invaders are still being sold at nurseries. Ask nurseries about non-invasive plant alternatives. Native plants often have similar characteristics to invasives without the damaging ecological side effects. Hyperlink to Morton Arboretum Invasive Plants Page Three Things to Consider: The planting site conditions. The needs of the tree or shrub. Your needs or those of your clients. Each landscape plant has special site requirements & some are more exacting than others. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Consider These Questions: What are the soil conditions at the planting site? Check drainage, soil pH, nutrient status and other soil characteristics we discussed. Always perform a soil test when in doubt. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Consider These Questions: Can the tree tolerate the extremes in climate? Be sure to use hardiness zone and temperature information (both winter & summer) to help with selection. Pay close attention to ?micro- or mesoclimates? of your location. Many landscape plants are intolerant of shade, but do poorly on hot, dry, sun-baked soils ? AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Consider These Questions: Will the plant fit the space available? Growth habit and mature size: Mature size is very important because plant height & spread can only be restricted with intense pruning & training. Be aware of overhead utility wires, proximity to houses and other buildings/structures, driveways, sidewalks, etc ? AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Consider These Questions: Also pay attention to proximity to underground utilities like septic systems when using trees with vigorous rooting habits - this can become very costly! Willow, popular, and silver maples have invasive root systems. Interplant competition for nutrients & light should also be a consideration. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Consider These Questions: What is the function of the intended plant? This is an important concept in the residential landscape because plants can: Provide shade? Act as a hedge? Act as a focal point/specimen plant? Increase cooling efficiency in the summer & heat savings in the winter? AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Consider These Questions: Will the tree be exposed to salt draining in the soil or salt spray from cars? Many plants & evergreens are sensitive to salt injury ? AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Consider These Questions: How much litter does the plant produce? Abundant flowers, fruits, seed pods, thorns, etc. can present aesthetic and safety concerns. Be aware some shrubs can act as ?trash plants? by collecting debris that blown by or is thrown from cars. Barberry, cotoneaster, quince ? any others? AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Landscape ?Trash Plants? AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Consider These Questions: Is the tree long-lived and strong wooded? Fast-growing trees (> 5ft per year) will provide shade quickly, but they often are not long-lived due to weak branching & wood, damaged in storms more frequently. Slower-growing trees (1 to 2 ft per year) can be encouraged to grow with proper fertilization & irrigation. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Trees are inherently stronger if branches are well spaced along the truck, truck is larger in diameter than branches at unions, and if branches have laterals. Consider These Questions: Rooting Depth? Deep, well spreading root systems are important to protect trees from wind damage, especially in wet soils. Conditions such as shallow soil profiles, frequent irrigation or rainfall can contribute to shallow rooting in species like ash, mulberry and elm. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Consider These Questions: What level of care or maintenance will the plant require? Many shade trees such as Littleleaf Linden and Honeylocust need considerable training when they?re young to develop properly & strongly. Select trees and plants whose growth habit and character are strong and require less maintenance. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Consider These Questions: What are the pest susceptibilities of the plant? Plants that are susceptible to many insects & diseases require considerable time & money to retain their aesthetic characteristics and health. Large genetic variation exists among landscape plants for pest resistance. Ginkos and the Goldenrain tree are very pest resistant ? AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Resistance to Japanese beetle has been documented among species of maples (Acer) and birch (Betula) and among cultivars of crabapple (Malus), crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia), and linden (Tilia). Production of certain plant odors, presence of secondary compounds in leaves, and leaf pubescence are factors affecting resistance to this insect. Host plant resistance is the most sustainable means of managing feeding damage or plant losses resulting from Japanese beetle adults. Consider These Questions: Selecting plants based on growth and heath is important, but landscape design principles are also commonly used to select the correct habit, leaf characteristic, color, texture, etc ? AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * How to Select Quality Plants: Quality of plant material can be just as important as proper selection, placement, and maintenance for success. Obviously, first look for signs of damage or disease. All nursery stock sold in IL must be certified ?pest & disease free? prior to sale. We actually have a state law that ensures this. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Sources of Landscape Plants: Most all landscape plants come from either wholesale or retail nurseries. Wholesale can either be field-grown stock or containerized plants. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * As a landscape professional, you should become familiar with the nursery standards for sizes. Woody Plants are Sold as: Bare root ? no soil on the roots. Very important that they are planted late in the fall or early spring and staked for support. Store in a moist, cool environment; protect from freezing ? plant before growth begins in the Spring. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Bare Root Quality? Bare root (liners) should have as many small roots as possible. These roots are key to the uptake of sufficient water and nutrients. Fibrous roots can be achieved by root-pruning, under-cutting or transplanting at any stage of production. Often, root-pruning is done on bare root liners by pruning the ends off of the roots prior to planting. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Ideally, there should be no branches around the central leader with tight crotch angles. If there are, they should be pruned out to avoid multiple leaders. Guidelines for Growing, Installing and Maintaining Healthy Trees Balled-and-burlapped ? soil around roots that is held in place by burlap fabric. Have a longer planting season, but best if installed prior to growth in the Spring. Many field-grown plants are ?pre-dug? & held under shade before sale in the Spring. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Woody Plants are Sold as: AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * What?s wrong with this picture? AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Weight 390 lbs 580 lbs 850 lbs 1,160 lbs 1,600 lbs 2,030 lbs. 3,355 lbs 5,600 lbs 6,700 lbs 8,400 lbs 11,000 lbs Containerized ? soil or soilless media around roots in a plastic, cardboard materials, or bag container. Many container plants have been produced in their containers. Available for planting almost anytime, but soilless media is subject to drying out. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Woody Plants are Sold as: AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * What is Container Quality? Bare Root Quality? Be on the lookout for root defects: Kinked or ?J? roots ; any or all of the roots are sharply bent. Circling or girdled roots; growth which twists around and around the inside of containers. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * ?J? Roots: most often the result of how the liners were planted in the field. They can be caused by a mechanical planter or wet field conditions when all or most of the roots, including the structural roots, are dragged to one side. ?J? roots may not provide enough support or stability. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Circling / Girdling Roots: grow in a circle around the trunk or around other roots. They are often the result of liners that were at one time grown in a plug or container. Circling roots may eventually kill the tree. Torn / Broken Roots: Torn or broken roots are often caused by the digging machine used to harvest the liners. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Trunk and Central Leader The trunk should be as straight as possible. The base of the trunk should not have a large pruning cut from re-growing the top. A large cut may not close quickly or properly and may provide an entry point for insects and disease. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Branching: The branches should be evenly spaced around the trunk without excessive gaps between the whorls. This helps to ensure that the tree will have good branching on all sides. It also allows for flexibility in pruning to the desired clear trunk height. Sometimes the branching tends to be two-sided or flat if liners were grown too close together. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Performance After Planting: Two (2) things are clear: The larger the plant/tree at planting, the longer the establishment period will be ? meaning how long it will require maintenance & attention. Although larger stock gives immediate performance, generally smaller stock will catch up in size due to quicker establishment. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * If properly grown and taken care of, performance is similar between similar-sized plants either container or B&B ? However, under moisture stress (which describes most residential landscape sites) filed-grown, B&B stock will perform better than containerized material. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Performance After Planting: Selecting Annual Plants in IL Visit the following websites for great descriptions of selecting annuals for IL and the Midwest. http://urbanext.illinois.edu/annuals/uses.cfm http://urbanext.illinois.edu/annuals/locations.cfm AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Great Book Reference Selecting Perennials in IL The University of Illinois has a great website devoted to Perennial Garden Design. http://web.extension.uiuc.edu/gardendesign/selection.html AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Great Book Reference Ground Covers in IL Selection of a suitable plant for ground cover depends on the area where it will be grown. Some ground cover plants prefer partial shade; others thrive in deep shade or full sun; and a few grow well in either sun or shade. Some prefer moist soil, while others need dry or well-drained soil. First, select types best suited to the conditions existing where the ground cover is needed. From these selected types, choose one that ornamentally blends best with surrounding plantings. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Book Reference Selecting Trees in Illinois? AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * http://urbanext.illinois.edu/treeselector/ AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Selecting Shrubs in Illinois? http://urbanext.illinois.edu/ShrubSelector/ Woody Ornamentals Flowering is an important selection criteria for woody ornamental plants. Not only timing, but color and duration. Most ornamental plants only flower for a week or two. Don?t forget the year-round interest features: bark, fruits, etc. AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * See Handout Packet on Ornamental Characteristics Keeping Current (After ISU) Here are some of the educational short courses available at the Chicago Botanic Garden: The Best Fir, Pine, and Spruce (2/24/10) Winter Tree and Shrub Trimming (3/04/10) Estimating Planting Costs (3/06/10) Organic Lawn Care (3/13/10) Arborvitae, Juniper, and Yews (3/13/10) Clematis Up Close (3/20/10) Care and Feeding of Trees (4/29/10) Lilacs (5/05/10) Crabapples (5/15/10) Small Flowering Trees (Series starting on 5/18/10) Plus countless other courses offered each year ? AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Presented by Ph.D.s and industry professionals. ?Membership has it?s privileges? ProHort 2010; February 15-16; Peoria, IL Sessions on all sorts of landscape and business topics including: Selection of Small Trees; Glenn Herold, Illinois Central College Water wise landscape plants; Harlan Hamernik, Wild Plums, NE Bare Root to Bare Root; Bonnie Appleton, Virginia Tech AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * Keeping Current (After ISU) Don?t forget about the Mid-Am in January of 2011 ? Slide * AGR 252 Landscape Management Slide * End of Lecture
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