1 Semantic Memory Schemas & Schemas? knowledge structures How is semantic memory stored? MOPs, TOPs, and pointers (oh my!) How do we represent concepts? Relationships between concepts ? _______________ conceptual knowledge used in understanding. ? Meaningfully _____________ concepts. ? Tells us ____________ and also what unstated information we can _________. ? Scripts: __________ schemas Scripts and Schemas Scripts and Schemas Can also be misleading: Bartlett?s experiment 2 What?s in a Script? ?I went to dinner at the Taj Mahal last night. It was great, but the service was slow and I almost missed the movie.? What?s in a Script? greeting uniform brings drinks brings food tip wears socks Scripts and schemas contain information that is ____________ to most of the members of that category, but ________ shared with nonmembers. Remember those things ____________ by (almost) all members of the category, and major ways in which an individual instance __________. Schank TOP ? Thematic Organization Point high-level analogies between instances that have similar structures but differ in their details EX. music or story genres MOP ? Memory Organization Packets events or facts that can be shared across different schemas EX. paying, tipping, making an appointment Pointer ? specific details about an individual situation 3 Semantic Memory Schemas & Schemas? knowledge structures How is semantic memory stored? MOPs, TOPs, and pointers (oh my!) How do we represent concepts? Relationships between concepts How do we represent concepts: Semantic Networks? ?spreading activation? Doctor Nurse Butter Nurse time delay Yes Yes Wine Glame No Reaction time 855 940 980 Probes with related primes are verified ______________ than unrelated primes Related Unrelated Nonword Prime Probe Lexical Decision Task: Decide whether the probe is a word. David Meyer Semantic Priming: Evidence for Spreading Activation 4 Searching Networks: Hierarchical Organization? Fruit starting with letter P Vs Starts with letter P, is a fruit. Constraint: How do we represent concepts? Will talking like a Klingon make you think like a Klingon? http://members.aol.com/jpklingon/uta/javauta.html Whorfian hypothesis: How do we represent concepts? Focal colors: consistently and quickly named Rosch: Showed that people with very limited color vocabulary could still discriminate colors. Also, showed same advantages for focal colors as did other cultures. (did not teach them words for the colors) 5 How do we represent concepts: Semantic Networks Does this mean that concepts are represented by words? symbolic fallacy ? symbolic fallacy 1, 2, 3, 4.. How do we represent concepts: Words? ?spreading activation? Potter and Faulconer name pictures or words of objects categorize pictures or words of objects (animal or tool?) Naming: naming pictures takes ______________ than categorizing pictures Categorization: can categorize pictures ________________ as names 6 How do we represent concepts: Pictures? ?spreading activation? How do you have a picture of ?justice?? More plausible: ___________________ But?.people differ in strategy On the other hand, different strategies don?t necessary mean different amounts Relations between concepts What makes a ?category? Similarity? Attributes? May depend on context Thompson-Schill (2003) Concepts in the Brain? 7 Concepts in the Brain? Leslie Ungerleider Concepts in the Brain? David van Essen Do have good evidence for different lower- level ____________ COLOR FORM MOTION ETC Concepts in the Brain? ?Parahippocampal place area? ?Fusiform face area? Controversial! Nancy Kanwisher 8 Grossman et al 2006 Typicality > Pleasantness Pleasantness > Typicality NATURAL OBJECTS MANMADE OBJECTS ABSTRACT CONCEPTS Grossman et al 2006 Typicality > Pleasantness Pleasantness > Typicality NATURAL OBJECTS MANMADE OBJECTS ABSTRACT CONCEPTS How the brain deals with concepts and categories may depend on the context / question. But generally get regions in or near temporal lobe. Semantic Memory Schemas & Schemas? knowledge structures Shared and specific information Concepts are related but not necessary represented by words or images per se Brain specializations for different types of semantic memory, and for different semantic memory processes 9 Learning new concepts Nitsch E2: Learn new (fake) vocabulary by example EX. CRINCH: CONSISTENT context: All examples about one context diner does not leave tip, diners argue, diner spills ketchup on purpose, diners complain about service, diner blows nose in napkin, diner lets kids run around restaurant, diner does not wash hands in restroom VARIED context: All examples from different contexts man does not remove hat in church, spectator blocks view at a public event, someone flicks ash on table, diners complain about service, driver ?cheats? at 4-way stop, cell phone rings during concert, someone talks in movie theater HYBRID context: First examples from same context, later ones varied diner does not leave tip, diners argue, diner spills ketchup on purpose, man does not remove hat in church, spectator blocks view at public event, driver ?cheats? at 4-way stop, someone talks in movie theater Learning new concepts Nitsch: Learn new (fake) vocabulary EX. CRINCH: to make angry by performing an inappropriate act; originally used by waitresses Test 1: Categorize a new example correctly? Diner tries to argue for a seat despite having no reservation. If only a few examples: VARIED context very hard to learn With many (7 examples): All learned well (> 90 % correct) Learning new concepts Nitsch: Learn new (fake) vocabulary EX. CRINCH: to make angry by performing an inappropriate act; originally used by waitresses Test 2: Categorize a new example FROM A DIFFERENT CONTEXT correctly? Roommate eats food from fridge without asking. 50 75 100 CONSISTENT VARIED HYBRID 10 Learning new concepts Best to start with consistency: ______________ Then Increase diversity and generalization ? ___________________! clustig Microsoft PowerPoint - semantic_071022_fillinblanks.ppt
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