Sensory Perception NCLEX Questions A patient must place his hand on the wall to keep his balance when walking. He leans when sitting and has difficulty knowing when his body is vertical and sensing the position of his body in space. Which type of receptor is probably involved? 1) Photoreceptors2) Chemoreceptors3) Proprioceptors4) Thermoreceptors Rationale :Proprioceptors in the skin, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joint capsules coordinate input to enable an individual to sense the position of the body in space. Photoreceptors located in the retina of the eyes detect visible light. Chemoreceptors are located in the taste buds and epithelium of the nasal cavity. They play a role in taste and smell. Thermoreceptors in the skin detect variations in temperature. Which medication might blunt a patient's perception of various kinds of stimuli? 1) Furosemide (Lasix)2) Metoprolol (Lopressor)3) Morphine sulfate4) Metoclopramide (Reglan) Rationale: Central nervous system depressants, such as the opioid analgesic morphine, blunt the perception of stimuli. Furosemide, metoprolol, and metoclopramide do not affect the patient's perception of stimuli. A patient complains, "Everything tastes so bland. I add salt, pepper, and sugar to everything just to make it so I can taste it." Which nutrient deficiency might be responsible for his problem? Select all that apply. 1) Vitamin A2) Vitamin B123) Iron4) Zinc Rationale: Deficiencies in vitamin B12 or zinc may cause diminished taste. Deficiencies in vitamins A and iron do not cause diminished taste. After sustaining an eye injury in a baseball game, a patient complains of blurred and distorted vision. Which visual deficit is this patient most likely experiencing? 1) Macular degeneration2) Astigmatism3) Strabismus4) Glaucoma Rationale: Astigmatism is caused by irregular curvature of the cornea or lens that results from injury, infection, or an inherited trait. Astigmatism causes blurred and distorted vision. A patient who has been unable to sleep for several nights has experienced a change in mental status. He does not know what day it is, or where he is. His speech and movements are slowed, and he seems dazed and stupefied. He cannot follow simple directions such as, "Hold out your hand." Which nursing diagnosis is most appropriate for this patient? 1) Chronic Confusion2) Acute Confusion3) Impaired Environmental Interpretation Syndrome4) Impaired Memory Rationale: Acute Confusion is the abrupt onset of transient changes and disturbances in attention, cognition, psychomotor activity, level of consciousness, and the sleep–wake cycle. This diagnosis is used for those who exhibit signs of sleep deprivation. Chronic Confusion may be used for patients with Alzheimer disease. Impaired Environmental Interpretation Syndrome is used when there is a lack of consistent orientation to person, place, time, or circumstances over more than 3 to 6 months. Impaired Memory is the inability to remember or recall bits of information. A patient in a nursing home is deaf and nearly blind. He is confined to bed most of the time. Which of the following interventions would help to promote optimal sensory function? 1) Keep the television on during waking hours2) Put colorful artwork on the walls3) Provide aromatherapy for him4) Keep the room dark and quiet Rationale: Aromatherapy would stimulate the patient's sense of smell, which apparently is still intact. When one sense is impaired, it is important to stimulate others. This patient is at risk for sensory deprivation because he has no auditory stimuli, limited visual and tactile stimuli, and because of being confined to bed, limited social interaction. Nursing interventions should focus on providing appropriate stimuli. Although television can provide stimulation when used appropriately, it is meaningless when overused. In addition, this patient could not hear or see it. He would not be able to see artwork on the walls well enough for it to provide stimulation. Keeping the room dark and quiet would further reduce the limited stimuli from light that the patient is able to perceive. Furthermore, "quiet" would be irrelevant for a patient who is deaf.