September 22, 2008 Dutch and English colonization in the Middle Atlantic Region 1624: Dutch west India co establishes colony of new Netherlands 1664: English take over the colony Economic system Commercial and shipping center Pennsylvania 1682: William Penn acquires land from Charles II designed as a Quaker refuge Prospered, due to good land Reminder: Jacques Ctier?s voyages to N. America (Newfoundland, gulf of st. Lawrence), 1534-1542 Slavery Sugar and the Atlantic System Europe colonization in the Caribbean pre 1650 Sugar cane brought to the Caribbean on Columbus? second voyage Early Spanish plantations on Santo Domingo, sugar shipped back from Spain starting c> 1516 Lack of success, in comparison to the Portuguese in Brazil 1620?s and 30?s: French and English establish settlements in the Caribbean English establish settlements on Montserrat (1632). Barbados (1627), and others French on Martinique, Guadeloupe, and others Initially, tobacco the main crop Chartered companies invest colonization Indentured servants immigrate to work on plantations Mid 17th century, shift away from tobacco production toward sugar production The Growth of Sugar cultivation in the Caribbean Dutch west India company seizes sugar plantations from the Portuguese in Brazil Dutch improve efficiency of Portuguese plantations C. 1650. Dutch planter bring their expertise to the British and French colonies in the west indies Growth of European colonies on the west indies European economic interests in the west indies initially depended on tobacco grown by European indentured servants Starting in the 1650?s: sugar replaces tobacco Increase in wealth for planter elite Decrease in the number of indentured servants corresponding with increase in the price of land Growing dependence on slave labor. English and French expansion in the Caribbean 1655: English take Jamaica from the Spanish 1670?s, French establish a colonial presence on Hispaniola Sugar Plantations Both grew the sugar cane and processed the sugar Expansion in size of plantations: doubles in average size between the 17th and 18th centuries Area under cultivation expanded as soil was depleted By end of 17th century, almost exclusively employed slave labor Slave Society in the 18th Century Caribbean Slaves made up the majority of the population in the Caribbean by the 18th century Approx. 90% of the population on most islands enslaved Plantation Life Aim of the plantation owner to extract as much work as possible from the slaves Often 18 hour workdays, six days a week Approximately 70% of the enslaved population would be doing field work Production quotas were enforced by punishment Short Life expectancy (mid twenties) Sugar mills were dangerous to operate Prevalence of disease Birth rate trailed death rate, so new slaves continually being brought over from africa Control and resistance in the Caribbean Resistance Forms of resistance varied across time and place May 1675: attempted revolt on Barbados Planned for approx. 3 years Organization involved the entire island Intent to establish a monarchy 1760: rebellion in Jamaica led by Tacky, leader from the Gold Coast Quickly suppressed by authorities Collective bargaining Economic Activity Escaped Slaves known as maroons, formed communities, sometimes obtained recognition of their independence Social Structures in the British and French West Indies Domination of the planter elite ?plantocracy Economy in English West indies very dependant on sugar, French west indies economy somewhat more diversified As time went on, size of plantations increased Significant wealth accumulated by Planter elite Political power in England: mid 18th Century English planters make up a voting bloc in the English parliament Free Black Population Was possible for slaves to purchase of be granted their freedom, by a process known as manumission More common in Spanish and English than French colonies The creation of the Atlantic economy Capitalism Stagnation of economic growth within Europe led investors to look outside Europe for investment opportunities Development of modern capitalist institutions such as banks, stock exchanges, chartered trading companies Mercantilist policies Designed to protect mother countries? interests: confined colonists to trading with the mother country Enforced by armed force if necessary Chartered Companies Dutch west India company chartered in 1621 Royal African Company and French East India and West India companies chartered in part to compete with the Dutch West India Company 1698: England opens trade with Africa to all English companies The Atlantic System First Leg: goods from Europe brought to Africa in exchange for people Much of trade initially dominated by chartered companies: Dutch West India Company and English Royal African Company 18hth century: growth of private enterprise?English traders from Liverpool and Bristol Most common goods traded to Africa textiles, hardware, guns Europeans (arguably with an exception in the case of Portugal) never establish a significant territorial presence in Africa in this time period: trading was carried out from trading posts on the coast of west Africa Slaves were usually captured in war In the 18th century, with the extension of the slave trade to the Bight of Biafra, slaves taken from further inland, obtained by kidnapping, rather than war Portuguese at Angola Portuguese served as intermediaries between slave caravans from the interior, and ships from Brazil Slaves sold at Angolan port often came from 600-800 miles inland 18th century drought in southern grasslands made refugees vulnerable to enslavement Trade based on collaboration between Europeans and African elites Middle Passage: the journey from the coast of West Africa to the Atlantic colonies Lasted 6-10 weeks High mortality rate from diseases, cruelty, and efforts to escape: prior to 1700, approx. 25% of enslaved Africans died on the voyage Increase in numbers of slaves transported 1500-1650, approx. 800,000 Africans brought across the Atlantic 1650-1800, approx. 7.5 million Africans brought across Atlantic Third Leg: goods from the plantations back to Europe Growth of sugar consumption in Europe Spread of sugar consumption down the social scale Other Trade Routes Triangular trade: involving New England, exchanging West Indian rum for West African slaves Conclusion The nature of Caribbean society Artificial, in that all elements except for land brought from the outside the Caribbean Development of racist ideology to rationalize African slavery Creation of a powerful elite with a vested interested in maintaining the plantation system The plantation as an early industrial site Transformation of the global economy Effects on Africa Population losses in areas heavily affected by the slave trade Impact of influx of European goods Change in social structure
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